Domain name registry
A Network Information Center (NIC ) or a domain name registry maintains one or more top- level domains in the Domain Name System. These responsibilities include the operation of the name server, the management of the namespace and the operation of the Whois server with contact details of the domain owner. Registries assign domains under a top -level domain, but not directly to end users, but through registrars. Background to this is that the end user ( domain registrant ) will be opened with competing registrars a market. Some NICs offer in addition to their registry tasks and registrar services, for example DENIC.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the highest authority for the assignment of names and numbers on the Internet. Their function is carried out since 1998 by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN ). ICANN monitored and delegated the registry tasks of top -level domains to independent organizations. A distinction must be generic Top Level Domains ( gTLDs ) and country-code top-level domains ( ccTLD). Registries of gTLDs received strict instructions from ICANN, ccTLD registries, while having regard to the state sovereignty have more freedoms. The registry is the most influential company VeriSign, which operates under other TLDs. Com and. Net.
NIC examples of gTLD (generic top-level domain ):
- VeriSign ( for. Com,. Net. Cc. Name. Tv)
- Public Interest Registry ( for. Org)
- Afilias Limited ( for. Info)
- EURid (. Eu )
NIC Examples of ccTLDs ( country-code Top Level Domain):
- DENIC ( for. De )
- SWITCH ( for. Ch and. Li )
- nic.at ( for. at)
- AFNIC ( for. Fr)
- ESNIC ( for. It )
There are also some Network Information Center, who see themselves as an alternative to ICANN and operate the root zone itself. This includes about OpenNIC that copies the root zone of ICANN and added to their own top - level domains.