The Doric is an ancient Greek dialect, which was spoken by the tribe of the Dorians. The distribution area of the dialect included large parts of the Peloponnese (among Sparta, Argos, Corinth ), Crete, Rhodes, parts of Asia Minor west coast (among Knidos ) and the Doric colonies on the Black Sea, Sicily and southern Italy. The Doric is often grouped together with the closely related North-West Greek dialects that were spoken in Phocis ( Delphi), Locris and Elis ( Olympia) to the Doric - North West Greek.
The Doric dialect was divided into numerous local variants that are mainly passed down through inscriptions. Among the representatives of the dorischsprachigen literature include the poet Pindar, Bacchylides and Alcman, the Syracusan comedy writer Sophron and Epicharmos, the Syracusan mathematician Archimedes and the Alexandrian poet Theocritus and Callimachus. Traditionally, the language of the Doric choral lyric. In the Attic tragedy (eg Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripides ), the dialogue is spoken in Attic, but the choral song sung in the Doric dialect.
In the Hellenistic period, the Doric, like the other Greek dialects was, by the Koine, largely based on the Attic standard language, repressed. However, it has the Tsakonische, a value based on the ancient Doric dialect preserved in remote parts of the Peloponnese until today.
The main differences between the Doric and Attic, the classic form of ancient Greek:
- Originally ᾱ long ( ā ) is always maintained. Example: Dorian μάτηρ ( Mater ) against Attic μήτηρ (meters) or φάμα ( PHAMA - the customer, the call ) to Attic φήμη ( Pheme ).
- Using double sigma / sigma ( σσ / σ ) instead of Attic Doppeltau / thaw / theta ( ττ and τ / θ ) before vowels Example: Dorian θάλασσα ( Thalassa - sea ) to Attic θάλαττα ( Thalatta ) Ἀσάνα / Ἀθάνα ( Asana / Athana ) to Attic / Ionic Ἀθηνᾶ ( from Ἀθηναία > * Ἀθηνάα > Ἀθηνᾶ ) / Ἀθήνη ( Athena ).
- Partial conservation of the w- Loud ( Ϝ, ϝ ) Example: Dorian Fοῖκος ( woikos ) against Attic οἶκος ( oikos )
- Original - τι ( - ti) is retained. Example: Dorian φέροντι ( pheronti ) against Attic φέρουσι ( pherousi )
- Compensatory lengthening on η ( ē ) and ω ( ō ) instead ει (ei) and ου (ou )
- The cardinal number word τέτορες ( tetores - four) instead of Attic τέτταρες ( tettares ) and Ionic / Koine τέσσαρες ( tessares ).
- The Ordinalzahlwort πρᾶτος ( Prato - ( the ) first ) instead of Attic πρῶτος ( Protos ).
- The demonstrative τῆνος ( TENOS - this ) for ( ἐ ) κεῖνος ((e ) keinos )
- The suffix 3rd person plural aorist and imperfect is " n" compared Attic " -san " Example: Dorian ἔδον / ἐδίδον ( Édon / edídon; aorist / imperfect tense of διδόναι ( δίδωμι; ( didonai / dídômi ) - pass ) against att ἔδοσαν / ἐδίδοσαν ( édosan / edídosan ). .
- The future tense - σε - ω ( - se- ō ) for Attic - σ - ω ( -s- ō ) on the example of the medium / passive voice of πράσσειν ( Att πράττειν ) - do Example: Dorian πραξῆται ( from πραγ - σ - έ - εται; prāxētai / Prague - sé - etai ) for πράξεται ( from πράγ - σ - εται; prāxetai / Prague -s- etai ) ( Doric Futur ( futurum Doricum ) ).
- Ending of the first person plural in - place μες - μεν
- In the nominative plural of the article and the demonstrative Doric τοί ( toi ), ταί ( tai ), τοῦτοι ( toutoi ) ταῦται, ( tautai ) against Attic οἱ ( hey) αἱ, ( hai ) οὗτοι, ( houtoi ) αὗται ( hautai )
- My vocabulary as the verbs λέειν / λείειν (le ( i) - Wanna) δρᾶv ( from δράειv; drâ'n / dráein - do ) or πᾶσθαι ( from πάεσθαι; pā'sthai / páesthai - acquire ) = κτᾶσθαι ( from κτάεσθαι, ktâ'sthai / ktáesthai ).
- Ancient Greek dialect