As Doryphoros ( " spear carrier " ) is a type of statue is called, which has been preserved Roman time in several marble copies and returning the original to a bronze statue of Polykleitos, a sculptor of the 5th century BC.
The Doryphoros is the focus of any study of the Polycleitos canon. Polykleitos wrote about an eponymous treatise. A quote from the canon says that the beautiful, the good, right consists of many numbers. The canon was thus a measure relations based on measurements and theory of proportion or locked them. On the Polycleitos canon not only ancient artists have moved. Even philosophers and physicians have to rely on him if she wanted to say that a principle of their own science possess a general validity. The ancient sources suggest that the right amount (not too big, not too small, not too thick not too thin ) to win not only by numbers and was to win not only in the body shapes. Also attitude of a person, emotive expressions and other things can express a right measure.
In fact, the Doryphoros embodies the right balance in every sense in the body shapes as in the attitude that is also a spiritual expression. Only in this way, not only by ideal body size, it could be the pattern work of Greek sculpture.
For canon also includes the choice of the topic, the nudity and the age that shows Doryphoros in the first man's years, not too young and not too old. Not one or the other half of life, but its center is the right measure here. Age and body measurements are in a balancing center position.
When keeping the other hand, the opposites are held that are offset in whole:
- Rest and exercise
- Tension and relaxation
- Elevation and Depression
The most famous expression of this game of opposites is the contrapposto. Not just stand and swing leg, but all movement motifs from head to toe are opposite kontrapostisch the Doryphoros. The Doryphoros stands on all sides as balanced, in perfect harmony coming, based on the balance of opposites.
With the Doryphoros Polyklet brought the Greek art in a new world. Until then, the plastic had developed from the archaic stiffness to a free ponderation, which corresponded to the natural way to stand and move. Also the Doryphoros seems perfectly natural to stand. At the same time, however, he embodied a law which had for the Greeks universal validity, the balance of power or of opposites, their gegenstrebige harmony. These also correspond to the principles of Greek philosophy and art, for example, Aristotle's virtue definition.
With the Doryphoros Polyklet of Greek sculpture has a new job and they rose above all that they had done so far. The Doryphoros represents not only a spearmen (probably Achilles ) as others statues an athlete, hero or God, whose essence to capture them, either using attributes or by their mere form. With him at the same time and fully realized a law that not only had the rank of a general art law, but a world principle for the Greeks. In addition to the Doryphoros the type of Diadumenos or Diskophoros was groundbreaking for the Greek sculpture. Later Greek sculptor Lysippos as, Praxiteles or Scopas resorted to this.
In addition, the statue was the Doryphoros model for the Augustus of Prima Porta ( 1st century BC). This is most evident when looking at the object. Also here is a very clear distinction between state and free leg.