The term dramaturgy (from Greek dramaturgein " Post a Drama " ) has many meanings today. Originally, he refers to the composition of dramas.
After Gottfried Fischborn allows the term to all procedural and structured activities, communicative acts ( speech acts included), Geschehnisfolgen and processes in society as in the individual lives of people relate, in the sphere of symbolic representation as in everyday life, in reality as in the arts. Essential for the applicability of the concept are spatio-temporal structured nature ( shape) and communicability - completely unstructured processes or those without communicative intention and effect have no drama.
Thus came the following products and activities of a " dramatic " quality to:
- Literary texts fixed, especially dramas and screenplays
- The performance of a play at the theater or in other media
- The entire complex of ( according to Richard Schechner ) public performance activities (public performance activities) so free except theater game, play by the rules, sporting events, theatrical embodied rituals, performances and political shows.
- The entire range of symbolically occupied communication, representation and Reflexität
- Wider social, anthropological and individual psychological phenomena, if, after time and space structured, event- run way.
Dramaturgy also referred to the work area of the playwright at the theater or in film. The field of dramaturgy in contemporary theater operation involves several tasks that are weighted differently depending on the theater. Key points are
- Reading and selection of suitable plants for the Schedule
- Author promotion, collaboration with composer
- Search for directors, set designers, etc.
- Editing and translation of drama texts; in musical theater establishment of operas and libretti ( underscore version = Definition of cuts )
- Development of background knowledge and material for the production team and the actors
- Care of the rehearsal process ( under the production dramaturgy )
- Editors of the program booklet and other publications
- Press and Public Relations
- Introduction events, public talks
- Performing a drama session
In addition to these specific tasks playwrights are usually involved in decision-making processes of the theater management in many areas, on the other side on many issues also contact point for members of the ensemble.
See main article: Film Dramaturgy
In the field of film and television production dramaturgical skills especially in developing new scripts will be needed.
The task tenured playwrights include the search for new materials and the care of the developing screenplays. However, reported playwrights are rather rare in the industry in Germany. There are few permanent staff in production companies dramatists and Head of Developments. In most cases the script development of producers and producers is operated, but which are not always sufficiently trained for it.
Free playwrights operate in Germany often under the professional title "Script Consultant". The task of the scripts Consultants is to analyze an existing draft of the script and to deal in detail and in detail with all relevant aspects of a film project, such as characters, theme and structure, to highlight strengths and weaknesses. The results of this analysis are mostly recorded in writing, but above all is sought in a constructive conversation with the author, producer and sometimes director for solutions.
Dramaturgy as fonts
As a dramaturgy also includes instructions for writing or understanding of dramatic texts are understood. As a classical texts about the poetics (around 335 BC) Aristotle, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's Hamburg Dramaturgy ( 1767-69 ), passages from Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics ( 1835-38 ) or Bertolt Brecht Little Organon for apply the theater ( 1946).
The demand for a dramaturgy in the theater first formulated Johann Elias Schlegel. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing exercised the office as a dramaturge at the National Theater in Hamburg and renamed its fields of activity for the first time in the Hamburg Dramaturgy. He emphasized the study of dramatic literature and aesthetic theories, the design of a currently -related game plan and reflection on the theater itself. In a sense, can also be referred to Goethe and Schiller as dramaturge; as Lessing wrote both dramatic texts, but also developed programmatic considerations about the theater. First playwrights were next Lessing Joseph Schreyvogel, Ludwig Tieck, Karl Immerman, later Heinrich Laube and Otto Brahm.
With the development of the Director, the tasks listed above of the playwright diversified since the beginning of the 20th century and on. With Brecht's work at the Berliner Ensemble production- related work of the playwright was introduced, which eventually stopped after 1968 generally feed at German theaters. At the same time a scientific nature of the profession took place; Task of the playwright is going to make scientific findings from various disciplines for the creative process of the emergence of theater accessible and usable. In this sense also won the job of production support in importance.
The profession is characterized by increasing complexity, which particularly in the field of public relations and also for theater increasingly important marketing lately to spin off classical fields of work of the playwright and cooperation with specialized service providers (eg in PR, script or casting agencies ) has led.
At the theater, the trend ( the growing number of festivals in musical theater as the Stagione principle, generally speaking) leads away from the ensemble theater with a large repertoire towards event - stressed forms of theater to the fact that drama is losing importance in the strict sense.
In contrast, the demand and importance of playwrights takes the film and computer game ever. This is due to the growing professionalization and differentiation of the production process.