Drive- by-Wire ( DBW short ) is the name for ( at least partial ) driving or controlling vehicles without mechanical transmission of the controls to the corresponding actuators such as throttle valves. The Drive- by-wire concept covers here at least two or more of the " X-by- Wire" - systems such as brake-by -wire ( brake control) and steer- by-wire ( steering).
According to the name, there are no mechanical connections. The control of functions is done via electrical lines and servo motors or electro-mechanical actuators. It can lead to lower fuel consumption when no energy-intensive hydraulic or mechanical systems must be operated.
The current trend in motor vehicle tends, all drivers commands only electrically forward. Shift - by-wire systems are now in series, however, complicate law the use pure electric systems for both steer- by-wire and brake-by -wire for, so there are only extensive studies. Problems would, in these systems, for example, a failure of the electrical supply ready, which could lead to total Unlenkbarkeit or brake failure.
For security reasons, especially the data must be transmitted redundantly on multiple, independent lines quickly and in parallel. Here, the transition to the FlexRay bus in the vehicle problems of the CAN bus should overcome.
The Honda NSX was from 1995, the first production car, of both electronic throttle control (E - gas, combined with the control of cruise control and the PGM-FI fuel injection), as also had a fully electronic power steering. The DBW system is enabled a more rapid engine response to throttle pedal commands, and a more accurate control of the traction control.
NSX when the risk of a throttle - by-wire has been reduced by incorporation of failure an emergency power supply.
An example of the consistent use of drive-by -wire technology is the hybrid car Toyota Prius.
The drive-by- wire concept is also relevant to the motor vehicle adaptation for physically disabled people.
Application in motorcycle
In the meantime, the trend for electrical transmission of the driving signals even with motorcycles. Here, however, usually spoken of " ride-by -wire". So, for example, sets BMW at the R 1200 GS ( K50 ) on a so-called E-Gas. The position of the throttle handle is recorded electronically and also forwarded to the engine and the throttle. With this technique it is also quite easy possible to use various modes, such as restrained respond to realize the engine in the rain or direct throttle response in Sport mode. Other manufacturers such as KTM make use of this technology.