As drum (from MHG: [. Lautm ] dreams ) is called in musicology a musical instrument in which the sound is with a plane spanned vibrating diaphragm, the so-called fur generated. The technical term for this is Membranophone. Colloquially are usually instruments whose fur is played directly with mallets or hands, called a drum. Occasionally, the term is expanding in this connection to other percussion instruments, rarely also on other instruments. Drums are used around the world in various forms as a rhythm, effects or signal instruments, and are among the oldest musical instruments known to mankind. Often you play combined with other percussion or percussion instruments, such as the striking mechanism of the classical orchestra or the contemporary percussion.
Shock, plucked, reaming and Ansingtrommel
In the study of instruments musical instruments are often classified by the type of tone. According to the classification of Hornbostel -Sachs classification, the terms Membranophone and drum are synonymous. It is this distinction between impact drums, plucked drums, friction drums and Ansingtrommeln, depending on how the vibrating diaphragm is played. The Ansingtrommeln therefore also include the - superficially similar to a wind instrument - Kazoo, as there is a spanned paper is played by the human voice and so vibrated, comparable to the " bubbles " on a comb. An example of the plucking drum is the Indian Ektara or gopi - yantra in their game a single, stretched on a fur string is plucked. The banjo is, however, classified as chordophone ( string instrument), although its attached to the bridge strings bring an spanned Fell in vibration. The Caixa, its attached to the body strings and fur are beaten, in turn, is considered beater drum. The friction drums include, for example, the Brummtopf that Cuíca, the Italian putipù or domiciled in Ukraine buhaj (Ukrainian: бугай ).
Even speakers produce sound by vibrating diaphragm, but are not usually considered musical instrument.
The kazoo is a Ansingtrommel.
The Ektara one of the tugs drums.
Grating drum: In the game of buhaj is pulled and rubbed attached horsehair on the fur.
Drum and timpani
Some definitions differ in Western music between drum and timpani. Thus, when playing the drum outweighs the atonal noise, while the bass drum is tuned to a particular sound with clearly defined height. Through a mechanism, the fur of the timpani can stretch during the game, and thereby change the pitch of the sound, so that the instrument can be used tonally.
The distinction makes, for example, in the symphony orchestra noticeable, where the great and the small drum of the drummer, the bass drum is being played by the timpanist. The Indian tabla is true because of their similar structure also as timpani, her name itself has been on tabl (Arabic:, Drum ') return result. She does not have the clamping mechanisms of timpani, the pitch can be varied by different attack techniques. The African Talking drum in turn owns clamping mechanisms similar to those of the timpani, among other because of their structure and not on the timpani. The tomtom contemporary drums can have a defined pitch and is sometimes referred to as " jazz cymbal", but one of the drums.
Basically, there are different definitions of what constitutes the pitch of a sound, and between pitch perception ( tonality ) and pitch resolution (pitch) is distinguished (see also: universals of music perception, psychoacoustics ).
Drum, percussion instrument, percussion
Colloquially all percussion instruments are referred to as drums usually associated with one or more - are covered fur - made of animal hide, plastic or other thin material existing. Most at their game is the rhythm in the foreground, while the precise tonality often plays a subordinate role. In many drums outweighs the sound of the noise-like character. Instruments that are used comparable to beat drums rhythmically or tumbled or produce similar sounds such as these, you count occasionally the drums added, especially some idiophone percussion instruments (such as log drums and idiophone water drums ), but other instruments ( such as foot drums ). Often such instruments are instead grouped with whipped drums under more general terms such as percussion or drums. In popular music genres, the drums will perform both as a drum kit or drum set (English:, drum set ' ) or referred to briefly as drums (, drums '), a drummer called accordingly drummer (, drummers ').
The transition between membranophem fur Klinger and idiophonem self- Klinger is sometimes blurred. For example, a tin can as a strung with a metal diaphragm drum or a gong be considered as Idiophone. A special limiting case is the large circular copper kettle Mizhavu from South India, which stretched over a tiny opening fur is beaten with the hands. The transition between hitting and rubbing a drum can be fluid, as for example with the broom instruments occasionally beaten at drumming, but occasionally rubbed.
There are drums that are in their main function is not percussive, but used as melody instruments. To this end, several, tuned to exact pitches drums are in a half circle around the player positioned as the Indian tabla drum circle Tarang or when Hsaing Waing, the leading melodic instrument of the Burmese orchestra. In the South Indian, hourglass-shaped wooden drum Idakka allows the membrane voltage change to such an extent that a range of two octaves is playable.
Percussion instruments in their game, the tonality is in the foreground and also do without fur - about glockenspiel, vibraphone, piano - will also colloquially not usually referred to as a drum.
- Hand drum, beaten with hands, regardless of the type
- Boiler drum, einfellig covered, bottom closed corpus, this Orchestra Timpani
- Messages drum, collective term for the function, independent of the design
- Frame drum, usually einfellig -covered frame whose height is less than the diameter of diaphragm
- Tube drum body is tubular
- Hourglass, tubular drum, the body diameter in the middle is smaller than the final diameter of the two
Some well-known drums
- Basler drum, double skin drum, the Basel folk music
- Bata drum, hourglass-shaped double skin drum of the Yoruba
- Bongos, small Cuban drum pair
- Conga, high einfelliges Cuban drum pair
- Djembe, West African goblet drum