Dummy head recording
With the word dummy head, or English Dummy Head, combining a special recording technique - the " stereophonic headphone " or binaural audio recording. The dummy head consists of a simulated head, in the place of the ears each one omni-directional microphone is placed at the entrance of the ear canals with a replica of the ear cups. Due to the shadowing effect of the head and evaluable for the ear canal differences between the two microphone positions pictures can be taken, which mediate the as received interaural signal differences, so the ear signals when playing through headphones a pretty good direction localization of sound events. The right-left localization is done safely, top - down and front-back distinctions, however, are more difficult. The direct front- localization seems to always move in a certain angle. Artificial heads can be loud Physical- Technical Federal Institute also measure the load on the ears through headphones and other " close to the ear sound sources " are used.
Artificial head recordings with diffusfeldentzerrtem artificial head are only suitable for playback through headphones. In a loudspeaker reproduction they appear tinted, tight and unnatural. Interaural signal differences ( ear signals ) can just be no inter- channel signal differences ( stereo speaker signals). These are two different worlds to. The interaural signal differences arise during recording and mixed at the loudspeaker reproduction with the emerging here interaural signal differences, which leads to frequency and localization problems. Only when the interaural signal frequencies are turned off while listening to the recording ( Kopfhörer! ), the artificial head recording play to their advantages.
Trying to diffusfeldentzerrtem artificial head to explain artificial head recordings for loudspeaker reproduction compatible, has not been accepted due to sonic weaknesses.
In addition to art heads also sphere microphone, headset microphone, Jecklin disc and recently the HBLM sound recording system suitable to create binaural recordings.
When Headband Microphone Sennheiser MKE - 2002, the microphones were housed in two external straps that could be hung in the ears of a person or a supplied artificial head in simulated pinnae. The MKE - 2002 is no longer manufactured by Sennheiser. A microphone, which works similar like a Walkman headset is worn in the ear, is the original head microphone ( OMC) of the company Soundman.
- The first stereo dummy head with a reproduction of the human ear canal was built in 1933.
- On 15 June 1946, there was a stereo test broadcast of Radio Nederland. The two channels were broadcast via separate medium-wave transmitter. For the reception we needed two independent receivers. The image was taken with a dummy head microphone.
- The first broadcast on German radio play in artificial head Stereofonie was for radio exhibition in Berlin in 1973, the RIAS / BR / WDR production "Demolition " (The demolished man ) from the novel by Alfred Bester.
Media in artificial head Stereofonie
- On the LP / CD Tales of Mystery and Imagination of " Alan Parsons Project " the storm was added to artificial head technology in the title of The Fall of the House of Usher.
- Edgar Froese: Aqua, LP 1974
- Can: Flowmotion, LP, 1976
- Jane: Fire, Water, Earth & Air, LP 1976
- Harlis: "Night Meets the Day", Sky Records 1977 edition: Sireena Records 2009
- Godley & Creme: Consequences, 3- LP 1977
- Lou Reed: The Bells, LP 1979
- Pink Floyd: The Final Cut, LP 1983 ( All sounds in KK - stereophonic )
- Megabyte: " Go For It! " CD 1990 ( IC 710 106 ) Track 4 & 7
- Delta- acoustic sampler: art head - dimensions, LP 10-130-1
- Code III: Planet of Man, delta- acoustic LP 25-125-1
- Seedog: We hope to see you, delta - acoustic LP 25-126-1
- Head Songs: Folklore, delta- acoustic LP 25-127-1
- Golem: Golem, delta - acoustic LP 25-127-1
- Old music sampler: tastings, delta - acoustic LP 25-129-1
- " Audiostax: The surround - CD", CD, 1987, recording examples with diffusfeldentzerrtem artificial head. " Staccato Special", CD, 1989, hearing test examples in Kunstkopfstereophonie. The CDs " staccato " and " staccato 2 " from the years 1981 and 1988 contain artificial head and kunstkopf similar shots. All CDs were distributed by the magazine " AUDIO " and set sampler of various Clips dar.