Today's Dzungaria (formerly East Dzungaria ), also known as Dsungarisches pool, is a Central Asian basin landscape in today's People's Republic of China. It comprises the northern half of Xinjiang ( Sinkiang ) in northwestern China and has been the site Urumqi ( Urumqi / Wulumuqi ) to the capital.
The name " Dzungaria " is derived from the Mongolian tribe of the Dsungars that dominated this region in the 17th century.
The sink Dzungaria (Chinese: Junggar Pendi准噶尔 盆地) lies between the mountains of Tianshan in the southwest, the Bogda Shan in the south and the Djungarian Alatau in the West. In the north and east, close to the Russian and Mongolian Altai. To the west runs along the crest of the Alatau the border with Kazakhstan and Central Asia so that, with the Dzungaria is connected by the Dzungarian gate. In the east Dzungaria goes to the Gobi Desert. The relief is very pronounced, it outweigh gravel deserts and salt flats. Some definitions evaluate the Dzungaria as Northwest foothills of the Gobi, though Dzungaria forms its own geological basin.
Amidst the Dzungaria is the Gurbantünggüt desert, with almost 50,000 km ² one of the largest sand deserts in the world. The areas at the foot of the surrounding mountains are permeated by numerous small rivers and arroyos, which then seep into the desert. In addition, the Gurbantunggüt is the meerfernste area of the world. The nearest coast is about 2500 km away.
In the carrying out of rivers edge areas lives the majority of the population of the region, which operate irrigation agriculture here. The only major river in the Dzungaria is the Irtysh River, which flows coming through the northern part of the landscape in east-west direction from the Mongolian Altai.
In ancient times the area of the Dzungaria was significantly greater than it is today.
The old West Dzungaria was beyond the Djungarian Alatau and included the territories east of Lake Balkhash. So you lay in Kazakh folk territory, known as the Seven Rivers country. The former East Dzungaria reflects the current region.
As borders of the old Dzungaria then were the Mongolian Altai in the north, the Lake Balkhash in the west (up to the Ili ) and south of the Tianshan.
Throughout history, this region has seen many rulers and peoples. Examples are called the Huns, Avars, Rouran, Göktürks, Karluks, Uyghur, Tangut and Mongol.
As a transit country to the west Dzungaria for all former countries was of great importance: Chinese, Arabs and Turks fought over them.
In the 13th century lived in the area Dzungaria the tribes of the Naiman, the Tangut and especially the Uyghur. The area was subjected to 1209 by the troops of Genghis Khan, and was thus one of his early conquests.
1226 was officially the area to the then Chagatai Khanate. In this area for a long time, but ruled by the descendants of the Mongol Khans Ugedai. In the 15th century, the area Dzungaria was divorced into a western and an eastern part. The West came to the Timur Empire, while the eastern part remained independent.
In the 17th century, then the Mongol Oirat and Kalmückenstämme came in Dzungaria to power, and both parts of the country were reunited.
1759 conquered China Dzungaria by merciless wars and finally settled Chinese from Inner China in the region.
1854/81 started the Russian -Chinese border wars. As a result, today's Kazakh- Chinese border was established in 1881. Nevertheless Dzungaria remained until 1949 Russian sphere of influence.
1949 the Chinese Communists marched into Dzungaria. In 1951, she was united with the neighboring province of East Turkestan to the current Autonomous Region Xinjiang Uyghur.