From the 12th century came under the influence of secular own ecclesiastical heraldry. The Heraldry of the Church renounced the secular symbol of the helmet and instead used hat and cross. Thus evolved up to the present time, a separate heraldic style.
History and Development
The oldest known coat of arms belonged to Bishop Guillaume de Joinville, the Bishop of Langres was 1209-1215. A generation later there was the first Zurich Wappenrolle with heraldic flags of warlike bishops. Heraldic shields had not the bishops, for the struggle was strictly forbidden to all priests. Nevertheless, emerged around 1250 coat of arms, which were very similar to those of the knights.
In the late Middle Ages, this art came in a decadent period and they used secular character like sword and crown. The secularization of the prince-bishop's counties and duchies and a renewed focus, the future Pope John XXIII. and his friend and collaborator Archbishop Bruno Bernard home played an important role, brought forth a new purely ecclesiastical heraldry. On the other hand, the "M" ( as a letter) in the coat of arms of John Paul II a fundamental breach of the heraldic aesthetics.
In the recent time one strives in ecclesiastical heraldry to a general simplification.
In ecclesiastical heraldry the mantling and crest of a coat of arms has always been the place of the helmet, used Christian religious insignia. During the Baroque period it was quite common to replace the scorned knight's helmet with a skull.
Heraldry in the Catholic Church Today
Insignia of ecclesiastical heraldry
- Cross simple Processional - Bishop, Archbishop ( honorary )
- Double Processional (often called " patriarchal cross " ) - Archbishop of ( titular ) Archdiocese
- Triple Processional - Papal Cross
- Pall with red crosses - Pope ( for the first time: Benedict XVI. )
- Awarded Metropolitan ( Head of an ecclesiastical province ), and occasionally other ( arch) bishops - with black crosses
Coat of church dignitaries
The insignia are still used mainly include the wide-brimmed prelate ( the Galero ) crooks with or without Pannisellus, pallium and processional crosses. The hats show through color and equipment with tassel lacing the rank of the wearer's coat of arms in the church hierarchy. So a cardinal must wear a red hat with red tassels 30 ( fiocchi ) in the coat of arms. A patriarch instead has a green hat and also 30 tassels in green, which are interwoven in circumstances with gold in order to distinguish them from the trappings of Archbishop - Primate (only in green) ( a more theoretical difference, as the primates crest nowadays sometimes today only as of the archbishops are timbre, and many of the Latin Rite Patriarch at the same time are also cardinals and as such carry their coat of arms ). The Primate Germaniae, the Archbishop of Salzburg, as Legatus Natus leads Legatenpurpur in his archbishop's coat of arms. An archbishop leads a green hat with 20 tassels, a bishop, an abbot of a territorial abbey or a prelate of a Territorialprälatur also a green hat, but only with 12 tassels. In Chinese culture the area of green hat of bishops is often replaced by a violet hat, as in Chinese, a cuckold is literally called the carrier of the green hat.
Also below the rank bishop clergy are entitled to coats of arms. The Apostolic Proto notaries timbrieren it with a purple Galero having on crimson cords 12 just such tassels, the titular proto notaries (which are mainly all vicars general, which have not yet been awarded a Ehrenprälatur ) carry a black hat with 12 black tassels on just such cords. Honorary Prelate days a violet hat with 12 violet tassels, the chaplains of His Holiness ( " Monsignor " ) is a black hat with 12 tassels on purple just such cords to.
The secular clergy on the diocesan level sets this system - but entirely in black - continued. Provosts, canons and other canons, sometimes general or Erzdechanten, wearing a black Galero with six tassels, Dean ( in some regions, the pastor ) the Galero with four tassels.
In the regular clergy wear the Superior General - as the titular proto notaries - a black Galero with 12 tassels, while the provincial one with six tassels, the local superiors ( Priore, etc.) with a four tassels. The coat of arms of Erzäbte, abbots and priors with benediction wear a black or held in the Order Color Galero with six tassels including Abtsstab or sometimes instead of Galeros the miter above the shield, a Generalabt or Abbot Primate one Galero with 12 tassels and behind the shield a shepherd's crook with a napkin. An abbess is behind the coat of arms of the crook often with Pannisellus.
All other priests ( and possibly deacons ) carry a black Galero with two black tassels.
The Pope is the only church dignitaries, the may have the right to have a crown, the tiara in his coat of arms. He puts on his coat of arms or shield. In the time of the Holy See is vacant, the period between the death of a pope and the appointment of a successor, leads a Cardinal (also called cardinal chamberlain ) as Camerlengo the Vatican state affairs. During this time it is allowed, as a sign of his secular power, a Ombrellino (which is a round decorated shield) to lead with two keys of Peter and the rank insignia of a cardinal in his coat of arms.
From a certain hierarchical level a clergyman himself had to choose a coat of arms. That was the case at the latest on running their own certificate seal. As in the church to obtain also the highest offices in the noble origin was not a condition, it happened that a priest did not own traditional coat of arms. Some Popes, for example, added their coat of arms in the religious congregation to which they came from. Among other things, Benedict XIII. from the Dominican Order, Pius VII from the Benedictine Order or Gregory XVI. from the Camaldolese Order.
Other coat of arms
The coat of arms of dioceses, archdioceses or abbeys are nowadays usually covered by a miter. The former use of the miter in the personal coat of arms of the respective ordinaries, although not expressly prohibited, however, come to a virtual disuse.
Overview of the coat of arms of church dignitaries
As a reminder of the former status of an archdiocese, the bishops of Trier lead also traditionally 10 tassels, although they are not archbishops ad personam.
Overview of the coat of arms of church institutions
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Heraldry in the Church of England
The bishops and archbishops of the Anglican Episcopal Coat of lead similar to those of the Roman Catholic Church, however, the use of Galeros is rather uncommon in Bishop Coat of Arms. The blazon is rather covered by the miter.
The lower clergy of the Anglican Church led to far into the 19th century no spiritual coat of arms, but clerics, who were entitled coat of arms, each carrying their inherited or conferred Family Crest with helmet, etc. However, this was in the wake of the Anglo- Catholic movement considered inappropriate, so that prevailed towards the end of the 19th century the custom of clergy, the ecclesiastical heraldry of Catholics with minor changes, especially However, the absence of hierarchical gradations simplistic to assume. Generally timbrieren Anglican priest their arms today, usually with a black Galero with two black tassels (often in black and white patterned cords ), only the deans and canons of the cathedral chapter usually carry a black Galero with six red tassels on just such lines.