Echallens ( [ eʃalɑ ] or [ ɛʃalɑ ], Provençal in the local dialect [(a) ɛʦalɛ ː ] ) is a municipality in the district of Gros- de -Vaud in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. The former German name sealed Erlitz was used mainly in the period from the 16th to the 18th century, but is now uncommon.
Echallens is located on 617 m above sea level. Level, 14 km north of the canton capital Lausanne ( straight line ). The municipality extends to the vast plateau of central Gros de Vaud, on both sides of the river talent, on the northwestern edge of the heights of the Jorat, in the Vaud Mittelland.
The area of 6.7 km ² large municipality area includes a portion of the gently undulating plateau of Gros de Vaud, the granary of the canton of Vaud. The area is crossed from east to west by the talent that emerges above Echallens from the heights of the Jorat and only forms a 10 to 20 m deep small Talniederung in the area of the village. The plateau has to Echallens on only a very small terrain classification. In the extreme southwest of the communal land extends into the lowlands of Mortigue (one page of Bach's talent ). The only major collection is located in the south-east in the forest area of the Bois de la Commune, in the 672 m above sea level. M. the highest point of Echallens is achieved. From the municipality surface 1997 18 % came from settlements, 13 % of forest and shrubs, 68 % to agriculture and slightly less than 1% was unproductive land.
To Echallens include extensive new residential areas as well as some individual farms. Neighboring communities of Echallens are Villars- le -Terroir, Poliez -le- Grand, Bottens, Assen, Saint -Barthélemy and Goumoëns.
With 5345 inhabitants ( 31 December 2012) Echallens belongs to the medium-sized municipalities in the canton of Vaud. Of the 89.1% inhabitants are French-speaking, German-speaking 2.9 % and 2.1 % portugiesischsprachig (as of 2000). The population of Echallens amounted in 1850 to 957 inhabitants, 1900 to 1096 inhabitants. After a slow but steady growth until 1970 (1643 inhabitants) began a reinforced development thrust, combined with a tripling of the population within 30 years.
Echallens is a regional commercial and administrative center of the fertile agricultural region of Gros de Vaud. By the end of the 19th century Echallens was a predominantly coined by agriculture village. Today, the farming and fruit growing have only a marginal significance in the occupational structure of the population.
Towards the end of the 19th century also put in a Echallens industrialization covered the place but far less than other Vaudois communities of comparable size. Therefore, the municipality developed only slowly to the industrial community. In the 1910s, the industry was dominated mainly by the processing of agricultural products, in addition, there were companies of the mechanical, of metal construction and textile industries.
The economic upswing since the 1970s with the creation of a new industrial zones. Today there are numerous small and medium-sized enterprises that focus on the construction industry, mechanical engineering (especially agricultural machinery ), the transport industry, horticulture, computer technology and on engineering workshops.
The main share of jobs ( nearly 70 %) united the service up. There are numerous jobs in the administration, in the banking and insurance industry as well as in the catering and hospitality industry. Echallens is the seat of the District Court and the site of an agricultural cooperative with grain silos.
In recent decades, the village has developed thanks to the excellent transport links and attractive location into a residential community. Extensive new residential areas exist primarily on the eastern edge of Echallens right talent as well as in the south. Some employed persons are therefore also commuters who engage in the Lausanne area of their work.
Education and Sports
As a regional center Echallens has all levels of education from primary school to high school. 1977, a new school complex was opened. Furthermore, there is in place a number of sports facilities ( including tennis courts, football pitches and a fitness center ). The most famous sports club in Echallens is FC Echallens.
The community is easily accessible via. It lies on the main road 5 of Lausanne via Echallens to Yverdon- les- Bains. The highway connecting La Sarraz at the 1981 opened A1 (Lausanne -Yverdon ) is around 7 km from the town center.
On 2 June 1874 stretch Cheseaux -sur -Lausanne was - Echallens the narrow gauge railway Chemin de fer Lausanne- Echallens - Bercher ( LEB) put into operation. The continuation of this line until after Bercher was inaugurated on 24 November 1898. Next to the station there is the bus stops Roche Sur and Grésaley in the outlying districts of Echallens. For the dispersion in public transport bus routes provide after Chavornay, Yverdon and Thierrens.
The territory of Echallens was inhabited in very early times. It remains of a Bronze Age foundry and of cemeteries from the La Tène period and from the early Middle Ages were discovered.
The first written mention of the village was carried out in 1141 under the name Charlens. Later, the names Challeins published, Esch Arlen ( 1177 ), Ash Allen ( 1228 ), Ash Alleins ( 1279 ), first Echallens ( 1315), after that Echalans ( 1381 ) and Echallan ( 1414). The place name comes from the personal name Carl (now French Charles) back and means for the people of Carl.
Originally, the site belonged to the Bishop of Lausanne. End of the 12th century founded the Men of Montfaucon, a branch of the Counts of Montbéliard in Franche-Comté, the rule Echallens and left it in the second half of the 13th century built the castle. 1317 the supremacy of the House of Savoy over the rule Echallens by the family de Montfaucon was recognized. The patch, which had developed over time around the castle, surrounded by fortifications around 1350, and Echallens received city rights in 1351. Since then, a weekly market was held in the town, which was, however, only carried out irregularly from the 16th century due to the relatively low importance of Echallens.
1410 was the domination of Echallens to the House of Chalon about that originated from Burgundy. That is why the Confederates seized by the Burgundian Wars this rule, and set it in 1476, the joint management of Fribourg, Bern and the seven other places. The Treaty of Bern Beromunster 1484 sparked the rights of these seven places on Echallens out by a compensation payment. From then on, was the bailiwick Orbe Echallens to which the former dominion Echallens well as the city and the village of Orbe Mex included as exclaves under the joint management of Bern and Fribourg. In the five -year rolling Bern and Fribourg presented the Vogt, who had his seat in Echallens.
Due to the common rule of the Catholic Freiburg and the Protestant since the Reformation Bern, the latter could not enforce the Reformation in the Bailiwick Orbe Echallens. Therefore, the area remained a long time Catholic majority, and numerous churches, including those of Echallens were used with equal while in some cases more than 300 years.
After the collapse of the Ancien Régime Echallens belonged from 1798 to 1803 during the Helvetic Republic to the canton of Geneva, who came up then with the enactment of the Act of Mediation in the canton of Vaud. While some time was even discussed whether Echallens should be capital of the new canton of Vaud as a counter- weight to the center of Lausanne. Since 1798, it is the district capital of the newly created district Echallens.
The Castle of Echallens was built in the second half of the 13th century on a small hill. It was burnt down in 1475 by the Confederates. After the reconstruction it was the bailiffs of Orbe Echallens as a residence. Today is the mediaeval castle, only a round tower, the north wing was built in 1719. Since 1816 the castle is owned by the municipality, which is housed the town hall and a primary school.
Although in Echallens a church was first mentioned in 1141, today's churches comparatively recent date. At the point of parity Church 1727 today's Catholic church was built in 1883. The Reformed church dates from 1865.
From the former perimeter wall of the town nothing remains. The Hôtel de Ville (Town Hall ) was built in 1781. In the center some bourgeois and patrician houses of the 17th to 19th centuries, including the house Bezenson and the Hôtel des Balances. In 1989, the inauguration of the Maison du Blé et du Pain ( Craft Museum ).
- Michel Mayor ( b. 1942 ), professor of astronomy and co-discoverer of the first extrasolar planets.
- Gabriel Wüthrich ( born 1981 ), football goalkeeper