Edward Livingston was the youngest son of Robert Livingston and was a member of the well-known honorable family of the Livingstons. In 1781 he graduated from Princeton University. From 1785, he practiced with a private law practice in New York City. From 1795 to 1801 he was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, representing the State of New York, after which he was until 1803 the mayor of New York City.
In the course of his political career Livingston, who belonged to the Democratic-Republican Party was, in 1820, a deputy in the House of Representatives from Louisiana, from 1823 to 1829 representatives of Louisiana House of Representatives of the United States, U.S. Senator from 1829 to 1831 and as successor to Martin Van Buren on May 24, 1831 to May 29, 1833 U.S. Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President Andrew Jackson. His successor in that office was Louis McLane. From 1833 to 1835 Livingston was ambassador to France. After his retirement from the public service, he retired to the manor Montgomery Place.
Livingston was married twice. His first wife, Liviary McEvers, he married on 10 April 1788. She died on 13 March 1801. In June 1805 he married the then 19 - year-old widow Madame Louise Moreau de Lassy or D' Avezac. In his honor, was named in Guatemala, the town of Livingston, as well as the Livingston County, Illinois Livingston County, Michigan and the Livingston County, Missouri.
Livingston was brother of Richard Montgomery. Edward Livingston's brother was the American politician Robert R. Livingston.