Eight Disciplines Problem Solving
An 8D Report is a document that is exchanged in the context of quality management in a claim between supplier and customer. 8D stands for the eight compulsory disciplines ( process steps) that are required during the processing of a complaint to overcome the underlying problem. An 8D report is thus part of the complaint management and used for quality assurance of the supplier.
In the 8D report the nature of the complaint, responsibilities and actions to correct the defect to be committed. The 8D Report, among other things standardized by the Association of the Automotive Industry.
With the 8D methodology to a systematic approach and consistent documentation of the individual solution steps, similar to the Six Sigma methodology, achieved. The approach of both methodologies is fact-based and ensures that product defects attributed to their causes and these are permanently turned off, instead of only cover symptoms.
The 8D methodology overlaps largely with the DMAIC core process in Six Sigma and how to apply then this especially if the cause of the problem is unknown or must be documented and the solution of the problem of the knowledge of an individual goes, so an Team ( from, for example, different departments ) is required. Often, it is also important that for a time-consuming problem a quick fix is needed.
Before the method is applied, but it should be clarified whether this elaborate method is required. Minor problems can often be solved quickly by another method.
The 8D method can only operate effectively if the 8D report is the progress of improvement efforts promptly documented and used as a working tool for the processing of complaints. Falsely an 8D report is often only be made after a complaint because the client demands such a report. The method is sometimes used to find the cause of deviations / anomalies in industrial processes. It should be noted that this only succeeds if the process to be examined at a previous date and time ( stable) has worked.
The 8D process includes the following eight steps:
D1 Establish a team to solve the problem
The members of the team should have sufficient process and product knowledge. They should also be willing to participate and be equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to analyze the problem on its causes, initiate corrective measures and to monitor their effectiveness.
The problem to be defined as accurately as possible, wherein the core of the problem should be identified and quantified.
Set D3 emergency measures
Immediate measures are taken to limit the damage and to prevent the further spread of the problem until a permanent solution is found (eg secretion by screening inspection or 100 % inspection of suspect material).
D4 determine cause (s )
It searches for the causes and the most probable ( n ) root cause (s) identified and verified by experiments, tests and comparisons.
In order to ensure sustainable, that similarly stored error does not occur again, the organizational level must be considered as part of the root-cause analysis of the technical cause beyond. This requires a focus on the three areas of " Why did the error occur? ", " Why the error was not discovered? " And "why the error was not prevented? " Recommended.
Depending on the problem, various techniques may be used to cause investigation in D4, for example, 5-Why method or Ishikawa diagram.
D5 Plan of Remedial
Are determined measures that can eliminate the root causes. The optimum (s) measure (s) are selected and verified by experiments that the problem can be effectively and efficiently solved and no unwanted side effects will arise. In the determination of measures is the prevention of errors and not error detection in the foreground.
D6 introducing the remedial
The corrective actions may affect process parameters, product specifications and other specification documents as well as to test methods and staff qualifications. After the successful introduction of the corrective action (s) is / the Action (s ) are canceled.
In the field of automotive industry is determined that only the process- improvement measures as remedial within the meaning of the 8D process are allowed. Personnel actions such as warnings, training or training shall not be considered process- improving.
Prevent D7 error repetition
It must be ensured through preventive measures that the same or similar errors are excluded in the future. The effectiveness of the measures taken is - monitored over a reasonable period of time - for example, by increasing the severity. Manufacturer of products for the automotive and aerospace industries are encouraged in the context of finding the cause newly identified risks in the development and manufacturing process according to the FMEA method - failure mode and effects analysis ( Failure Mode and Effects Analysis ) - to assess (risk analysis) and minimize. Also, the quality management system with its established procedures and regulations will need to be adapted to new requirements.
D8 worthy of team performance
The joint effort is appreciated and shared experiences.
Parallelism of the 8 disciplines for Six Sigma DMAIC process core
The disciplines D1, D2 and D5 are at Six Sigma part of the definition process, with discipline in addition to the 5 disciplines D3 and D6 connect to the improvement process, the DMAIC Improve the project produces. The discipline D4 would be part of the measurement and analysis process, D7 corresponds to the control in the Six Sigma core process, ie exclude the control of the process to error repeats. Even with DMAIC projects to the end of each project, an appropriate appreciation, ie the eighth discipline are loud 8D report.