The electro-optics deals with the optical properties of matter under the influence of an external electric field.
To this end, a number of physical effects ( electro-optical effects) have been found:
- The Kerr effect, the birefringence is proportional to the square of electric field strength detected 1875
- Pockels effect, in accordance with non- centrosymmetric crystals, linear, discovered in 1893
- Stark effect splittings in atomic and molecular spectra, (too small) predicted in 1901, discovered in 1913
- Franz- Keldysh effect, modification of the band gap in semiconductors, predicted in 1957, observed in 1960
- Quantum Confined Stark Effect, Stark effect on excitons in nano- or superlattice semiconductors, discovered in 1984
- Solid State Physics