The electro-optics deals with the optical properties of matter under the influence of an external electric field.

To this end, a number of physical effects ( electro-optical effects) have been found:

  • The Kerr effect, the birefringence is proportional to the square of electric field strength detected 1875
  • Pockels effect, in accordance with non- centrosymmetric crystals, linear, discovered in 1893
  • Stark effect splittings in atomic and molecular spectra, (too small) predicted in 1901, discovered in 1913
  • Franz- Keldysh effect, modification of the band gap in semiconductors, predicted in 1957, observed in 1960
  • Quantum Confined Stark Effect, Stark effect on excitons in nano- or superlattice semiconductors, discovered in 1984
  • Optics
  • Solid State Physics