As a high elevated train or run on viaducts parts are designated by urban public transport.
First elevated railways were built in 1867 in New York City and Chicago in 1888 and powered by steam locomotives. In Chicago, an electrically operated overhead railway was built for the World 's Columbian Exposition in 1893 for the first time. The railcar these so-called " Intramural Railway" elevated railway were in a sense the prototype for the conversion to electrical operation, which took place only in 1898. Today the meantime developed railway still runs mostly elevated, it has advocated the name Chicago Elevated or short- El, so naturalized " elevated train ". The high path of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company in New York's Manhattan was replaced from the 1930 step by step through the subway, because landowners regarded the elevated train as a negative factor for the development of the district, led by this. Since the mid- 1950s, at least in Manhattan almost no elevated sections longer in operation.
With the monorail in Barmen ( today Wuppertal ), the first elevated railway in Germany was opened in 1901, it presents as a monorail, a special form dar. 1902 was followed by the elevated railway with standard gauge track in Berlin, 1912, the elevated railway in Hamburg. The complex construction of a viaduct justified by the lack of space for a walk path and the cost savings compared to a subway. In Berlin, expected difficulties with respect to the soil to build the first elevated railway, which has been continuously built up on the last stop Potsdamer Platz as a viaduct. Only shortly before the city limits of Schöneberg Charlottenburg adjacent to the railway was continued as an underground rail line. The 1907 sections placed in service extension through the town center was laid out underground, the end portion in Prenzlauer Berg, however, recovered in 1913 as a railway viaduct.
In Hamburg, the term elevated railway for the complete system was used until 1947, the operating company of the Hamburg U -Bahn ie in accordance with still high Hamburger Bahn AG. Around two-thirds of the Hamburg U -Bahn run above ground without crossing a viaduct or in the incision. Only a small part of it runs on viaducts.
1984 he was awarded with the Dortmund H-Bahn his own little overhead railway network. Two further construction phases in 1993 and 2003, the Dortmund H-Bahn acquired its present state route, connecting breakpoints of the University with the adjacent technology park and the village Eichlinghofen.
Elevated train tracks with several stations from the early days of the underground construction, there is also in Vienna and Paris. The elevated train from Liverpool, however, was shut down and dismantled, and since then is considered the only ever completely disused rail network in the world.
Also some speed railways in the 1960s and 1970s were partially created as elevated railways, such as the metro in Amsterdam and Rotterdam that have only short tunnel sections because of the high water table and are passed otherwise at grade or high position. The Docklands Light Railway in London is considered to be elevated railway and also in the United States originated metro networks as high railway and about in Detroit and Miami.
In German-speaking countries were in the past four decades in Hamburg (Hammer Brook ), Cologne ( Northern belt line ), Frankfurt ( Westbahnhof, Roman town - Ginn Home, Airport elevated railway ), Nuremberg (U1 between the subway stations Eberhardshof and city boundary ) and Vienna (U1 built to Leopoldau, U2 to Aspern, U6 to Siebenhirten ) elevated railway sections for the respective U -Bahn, S -Bahn or tram networks, plus some overhead conveyors.
In the south of Duisburg U79 line runs as high lift and the former OB Adolf Sauerland had spoken out in favor build an elevated railway from the University of the city center to the inner harbor, to cross-link the city better. His SPD - competitor preferably a solution over the Rhine.
The reasons for the establishment of an elevated train can be very different nature. As a rule perform geological features that would make drilling a tunnel very difficult and costly for building construction, such as a high water table (eg, Miami) or complicated soil layers. For an elevated railway speak compared to the tunneling also usually the shorter construction time and generally lower construction costs (eg New York City).
In Basel there is a high track-like tram section from the station Basel SBB to Münchensteinerstrasse. This section contains the stop Peter Merian. It is operated by the Basel-Land Transport.
Many high rail lines from the beginning of the underground construction are now a protected monument and are generally, especially compared to newer lines of concrete elements, as "beautiful " or attractive. In some cities the viaduct be rehabilitated under the tracks for several years and rents (Berliner Stadtbahn, Vienna Stadtbahn ). One finds many trendy restaurants and small shops. Through this new revitalization meeting places in previously rather unsightly and unattractive areas can occur.
To the west of Manhattan, the former elevated railway line High Line has been transformed into a public park, which opened in June 2009 partially.
Metro viaduct U2 Eberswalde road
Elevated railway Hamburg U -Bahn
BART route in the San Francisco