Elizaveta Ivanovna Bykova (Russian Елизавета Ивановна Быкова, scientific transliteration Elizaveta Ivanovna Bykova; * 1 Novemberjul / November 14 1913greg in Bogolyubovo, .. † March 8, 1989 in Moscow) was a Soviet chess player and third Chess World Champion.
Elizaveta Bykova came from a peasant family and moved in 1926 to Moscow. After leaving school, she studied at the Faculty of Economics in Moscow. In 1938 she was first Moscow City champion in chess, having previously reached the third place in the year. Overall Bykova took five times the title of the Moscow City Championship.
After the Great Patriotic War Bykova was in the years 1947, 1948 and 1950 three times Soviet Champion. In her first World Chess Championship Tournament Women 1950, she tied for 3rd place with Valentina Borisenko. In 1953 they defeated in a battle for the world championship Lyudmila Rudenko with seven wins, five defeats and two draws ( 8:6 ), and thus became the third World Champion in the history of chess. Due to this success they received in 1953 by FIDE the title International Champion. In the same year she was awarded the Honored Master of Sports ( Заслуженный мастер спорта ). In 1956, she lost the world title to Olga Rubzowa, but could it in a revenge match 1958 with a score of 8,5:5,5 ( seven wins, four defeats, three draws ) recover. 1960 was Bykova Female International Master in Amsterdam. After she was able to defend her world title at the World Championships in 1960 against Kira Sworykina, they had to clear the 1962 superior later Grand Master Nona Gaprindashvili admit defeat ( seven losses, four draws ). In 1976 Bykova was appointed to the International Grandmaster.
In addition to playing chess Bykova published several books. Among other things, a 1957 published comprehensive biography of its predecessor on the throne world champions Vera Menchik.
- Bykova, EI: Sovetskie šachmatistki (Russian « Советские шахматистки "), Moscow 1951
- Bykova, EI: Sorevnovanija na pervenstvo mira po šachmatam sredi ženščin (Russian « Соревнования на первенство мира по шахматам среди женщин "), Moscow 1955
- Bykova, EI: Vera Mencik (Russian « Вера Менчик "), Moscow 1957