Emil Artin was the son of art dealer of the same name and the opera singer Emma Laura Artin. He grew up in the town of Reichenberg (now Liberec) on in Bohemia, where his time almost exclusively spoke German. He finished his schooling in 1916 and was drafted a year later the Austrian army, after he had studied the mathematics one semester at the University of Vienna. After the end of World War II, he went in 1919 to the University of Leipzig, where he studied with Gustav Herglotz and 1921 received his doctorate. In 1923 Artin habilitated at the University of Hamburg with the topic Square body in the sphere of higher congruences and was a lecturer there. In 1925 he became associate professor. In 1926 he was appointed to Münster ( Westphalia ), but remained in Hamburg and in the same year professor.
In 1929 he married his student Natalie Jasny. Together with Emmy Noether in 1932 he received the Ackermann- Teubner Memorial Prize. In 1933 he signed the confession of the high school teachers to Hitler, the kind of conclusion to this list in Hamburg and what was signed exactly, but is controversial. 1937 Artin was dismissed from government service because his wife was of Jewish descent. In the same year the family Artin emigrated to the USA. He was from 1937 to 1938 worked at the University of Notre Dame, then to 1946 in Bloomington (Indiana) at Indiana University and 1946-1958 at Princeton University. In 1958 he returned to Germany, where he worked in Hamburg until his death. In 1960, Artin was elected to the Academy Scholars Leopoldina. One of his three children is the mathematician Michael Artin ( born 1934 ).
He worked mainly in the field of algebra and number theory.
In algebra, the artinian rings were named after him. Also, he examined the theory formally real body. Van der Waerden known algebra textbook arose in part from his lectures ( and Emmy Noether's where ).
He had, among other significant contribution to the development of class field theory. For example, comprises be after him called reciprocity law ( artinsches reciprocity law ) any reciprocity laws hitherto developed since Gauss. In 1923 he led an Artin L-functions of number fields. At Princeton, the Artin - Tate seminar of the 1950s was important for the further development of class field theory with methods of Galoiskohomologie.
He released in 1927 the 17th Hilbert problem in his work On the decomposition of definite functions into squares.
Work of Artin laid the foundation for today's evolving Arithmetic Geometry. For example, he defined a zeta function for function fields over finite constant bodies ( ie curves), which was later generalized by Friedrich Karl Schmidt.
He also wrote works on the theory of braid groups ( braid groups), which have been replicated in theoretical physics application, and gave 1924 an early mechanical model with chaotic behavior ( " quasi- ergodic orbits ").
There are two known Artin conjecture, both unproven. One concerns his L-functions in number theory, the other deals with the distribution of the numbers p, mod is for a fixed natural number a is a primitive root of p.