The Enercon GmbH is the largest German manufacturer of wind turbines ( WT ). At the headquarters in Aurich ( Ostfriesland) is also the largest production plant. After sales Enercon is the largest company based in East Friesland and the twelfth largest in Lower Saxony. With more than 22,000 wind turbines installed at an installed capacity of about 32.9 gigawatts ( GW) in over 30 countries, the company founded by Wobben 1984 is one of the leading in the industry and was in 2013 in terms of wind power capacity newly installed with a market share of 9.8% of the world's third largest producer.
In addition to sales offices in 22 countries and more than 160 service stations worldwide, the company operates manufacturing facilities in Germany (Aurich, Emden, Haren, Magdeburg, Südbrookmerland ), Sweden (Malmö ), Brazil ( Sorocaba, Parazinho, Pecém ), Portugal ( Viana do Castelo ), France ( Longueuil -Sainte -Marie ), Canada ( Matane ), Turkey (Izmir) and Austria ( Zurndorf ). On 1 October 2012, the former sole owner Wobben Enercon brought into a family foundation and retired for health reasons from active business life out. By Aloys- Wobben Foundation 's long -term independence Enercon should be preserved.
- 2.1 beginnings
- 2.2 industrial espionage? The case Kenetech Wind Power Inc.
- 2.3 dispute with Enercon India Ltd..
- 2.4 Aloys- Wobben Foundation
- 3.1 Wind turbines 3.1.1 Technical Concept
- 3.1.2 Important plant types 188.8.131.52 E-82
- 184.108.40.206 E -101
- 220.127.116.11 E -115
- 18.104.22.168 E-126
- 4.1 relative to unions
- 4.2 transparency
- 4.3 Windblatt
Enercon on a world scale
Worldwide, the Enercon group of companies with numerous subsidiaries had 13,000 employees. The company owns over 45 % of patents in the field of wind energy technology in the world. Another special feature of Enercon is that the company among the seven leading wind turbine manufacturers ( the cumulative market share of over 90 % have ) is the only non- publicly traded corporation. On the world market Enercon 2011 was measured at the newly installed system performance with 7.9% market share of fifth among wind turbine manufacturers. In Germany Enercon is the market leader for several years. In 2011, the market share was 59.5 % compared to 59.2 % in 2010 and 60.4 % in 2009. Revenue 2011 with installed 3180 MW (worldwide ) amounted to 3,928 million euros, the Group recorded a surplus of EUR 473 million. The equity was provided with 2,424 million euros. For 2012, the UEE Holding published in the Federal Gazette for the companies merged under their sales of 5.1 billion euros with a net profit of 607 million euros.
Under the umbrella of UEE Holding GmbH group - in addition to the operating outwards ENERCON GmbH - more than 250 national and international individual companies. This includes outsourced service industries such as IT and logistics, various power plant and wind farm investments and production plants. Other companies (among the ENERCON Service) is a Dutch parent companies as the Wind Energy Services BV subordinate based in Amsterdam. (2008 /2010)
The company is based since its foundation in 1984 in the district of Aurich Extum; the production plants are now in the sand Horst district. In addition, Enercon has production facilities in Emden, Südbrookmerland, Haren, Magdeburg, Turkey, Brazil, Malmö / Sweden and Viana do Castelo / Portugal. Enercon, Vestas and Siemens before the wind turbine manufacturer with the world's highest production depth. Generators, nacelles, concrete and steel tube towers, rotor blades, control systems, power electronics and some of the cast components are manufactured in factories Enercon. A foundry (cast center Ostfriesland, GZO ) was built from April to November 2010 in Georgsheil between Emden and Aurich; there cast iron components for the wind turbines are manufactured. In the foundry more than 200 people work. In Euro harbor at Haren ( Ems), about ten kilometers north of Meppen is a rotor blade production since summer 2012. This has around 550 employees (as of June 2013). From there, the rotor blades by means of barges to be transported by rail or truck to their destinations. Meanwhile, the establishment of Haren work was compromised by parallel promoted plans for a coal power plant in neighboring Dörpen; after the withdrawal of investors in the power plant, the construction was resumed. Due to insufficient qualified personnel occurred during the commissioning of the facility to delays, so that numerous E -101 were initially built without wings.
In Ostfriesland Enercon is the second largest industrial company after the Volkswagen plant in Emden. Also in Magdeburg is Enercon one of the largest private companies. In Zurndorf in Burgenland took place on 9 March 2012, the groundbreaking ceremony for a tower plant, which will produce about 200 towers for wind turbines in Austria and Eastern Europe per year. With up to 200 employees, the WKF Austria GmbH is among the largest foreign plants of the company in the field of concrete tower manufacturing.
After a test phase, the work went on to mass production in January 2013. Enercon is market leader in Austria (50 %) and established there in 2012, 385 plants with 747 MW.
Research and Development
The research and product development is carried out at the Department of Enercon " Wobben Research & Development". In late summer 2013, the activity of this department is to be bundled in the " Enercon Innovation Center ", which is currently being built in the industrial area north of Aurich. For the complex with a total area of approximately 30,000 m² heard an office building with space for 700 engineers and an attached experimental hall with a floor area of 13,000 m².
The native originally from Rastdorf in the Emsland district engineer Aloys Wobben founded the company in 1984 in the East Frisian Enercon of Aurich. Initially there was the company of only a few engineers. First product development of the company was the wind turbine E-15/16, four years later, followed by the E -17 and E -32. It took seven years for the small business could raise its own production facility in the district of Aurich Extum. There, the Central Government has its seat today The breakthrough for the young company came in 1993: Enercon provided the wind turbine E-40 (500 kW series) before the first gearless turbine generation. At the same time the production of rotor blades began in the specially founded to company Aero. This principle has also maintained at its expansion in the following almost two decades Enercon: New divisions were almost always established as a new subsidiary.
Two years after the start of production of the Enercon E-40 was the development of the E- 66 is an economically great success: The type of plant was sold a total of more than 2000 times. The production, the company had now outsourced to a commercial area in the district of Aurich sand Horst where sufficient for the further expansion of the business areas were available. A disadvantage, however, proved that the products - especially the rotors - on the way to their place of installation by truck Auricher the city had to cross, why Enercon later reactivation of a railway drove forward for removing the always larger rotors.
With the purchase of a manufacturing plant in the Brazilian Sorocaba (1996 ), the international expansion of the company began.
Industrial espionage? The case Kenetech Wind Power Inc.
Media reported since the late 1990s, the U.S. Secret National Security Agency ( NSA) had 1994, the German company Enercon monitored with the help of Echelon. The data obtained were submitted to the American competitors Kenetech Wind Power Inc.. This would have the data used to gain access to Enercon core technologies and to patent in the U.S.. Enercon was thus closed the U.S. market to the year 2010. The reports are mainly based on descriptions of the company itself
In fact, the U.S. authority in the U.S. International Trade Commission imposed, in August 1996, a ban on imports of Enercon until 1 February 2010. Reason was that Enercon with the intended export of 280 wind turbines in the United States to claim 131 of the U.S. patent would violate 5,083,039. The patent was on 1 February 1991, three years before the alleged espionage action, filed by the Californian company U.S. Windpower Inc.. 1993 U.S. Wind Power was renamed Kenetech Wind Power Inc.. Kenetech has requested the import ban proceedings against Enercon. In the process Kenetech also presented photos of components of an E -40 wind turbine. This material was obtained in March 1994 while visiting a E-40, three years after grant of the patent; the visit took place with the permission of the owner of the plant. The validity of the patent itself was not doubted by Enercon in the proceedings before the Commission. The patent was acquired ( after the insolvency of Kenetech in 1996) of the GE Wind Energy. The Enercon magazine " Journal of Wind ", 2/2003, page 11, explains the patent dispute from the perspective of Enercon and mentioned that people have started since the incident, protect its technologies with its own patents. The Enercon GmbH and General Electric Company in 2004 settled their patent litigation; since 2004, making it the American market for Enercon no longer closed.
Dispute with Enercon India Ltd..
In February 2011 it was reported in some media of a dispute, the Enercon GmbH with its own, existing since 1994, the Indian subsidiary of Enercon India Ltd.. ( EIL) and led to the detriment before an Indian court Enercon was decided. Enercon has subsequently withdrawn completely from the Indian market.
There are allegations in the room, the executive director of the Indian subsidiary, the former textile entrepreneur Yogesh Mehra of Mumbai, have control over its operations stopped, removed no more dividends to the German parent company since 2005, not submitted audited accounts more since 2006, and finally with illegal agents seized sole control over the subsidiary itself. EIL had stolen patents available about Enercon as well as the brand name for their own recovery. In addition, a former employee in the Enercon Magdeburg work of industrial espionage for EIL was transferred and convicted. Against the Indian Patent Court IPAB in Chennai EIL has sued for release of the otherwise internationally recognized patents on numerous Enercon core technologies. The Indian judges declared twelve important Enercon patents in India for invalid, on the grounds that the patents would not achieve the necessary level of creation. These technologies are now available in India for free each use. The German partners were thus " expropriated in fact ." In the press bribery allegations have been made.
On 28 January 2011, the events have prompted a "small request " of the Bundestag Garrelt Duin ( SPD constituency Aurich - Emden ) to the Federal Government on the subject of what going to do this for the Protection of German companies in India. The Parliamentary State Secretary, Federal Ministry of Justice, Max Stadler, stated then that you 've raised the dispute with the Indian Ministry of Commerce and that similar cases are the Ministry so far not known. Decisions of Indian courts would not comment, but the federal government rate German companies, " the protection of its intellectual property rights to devote to foreign markets an exceptional degree of attention."
By late 2012, used EIL on its website the name and the logo Enercon, applied Enercon wind turbines produced in India and reported on current projects without explaining the relationship with Enercon GmbH in Germany. Meantime (as of January 2013) has EIL in Windworld India Ltd.. renamed, however, still refers explicitly to his previous company Enercon India Ltd.. ( " Enercon India is now Windworld India. "). There wind turbines are also advertised on their own, Indian production.
Aloys- Wobben Foundation
For health reasons, the company founder Wobben 2012 withdrew from operations and transferred with effect from 1 October 2012, his company shares to the Aloys- Wobben Foundation. The Foundation thus became the sole shareholder of ENERCON group. This step Wobben wanted to ensure the independence of the company. The CEO of the Foundation include Hans- Dieter Kettwig, Managing Director of ENERCON GmbH, and the authorized signatory Nicole Fritsch Nehring. Fritsch - Nehring was appointed as part of the creation of the foundation in the management of ENERCON GmbH. As a new attorney sales manager Stefan Luetkemeyer was appointed.
Areas of activity
The main business of Enercon, the construction and sale of wind power investment of which also Enercon operates also in other sectors such as hydropower, also include logistics company for the transportation of its own facilities to the Group.
Enercon wind turbines have, compared to most other turbines of the wind turbine manufacturers on some technical features. Characteristic is the gearless concept relies on the Enercon as pioneers in this technology since 1993. Until 1993, Enercon plants possessed a gear drive train. The rotor blades are connected via the gearless hub directly to the rotor of a ring generator ( synchronous generator ). Together, these components rotate about a front and rear main bearing around a stationary axle journal. Thus, to dispense with the use of a fault-prone and maintenance-intensive ( such as regular oil changes ) mechanical transmission. This is achieved by a special construction of the generator. As the generator rotor runs at the same speed as the rotor, the number of the mechanical load change on the lifetime is considerably reduced. The generator speed (and hence the rotor speed ) is the type of plant and the wind conditions, and amounts to between 18-45/min in the E- 33 and 5-11.7 / min for the E-126, while a transmission system at rated power a generator speed of about 1500 rpm is reached.
The Enercon systems can vary slightly from the other manufacturers. The nacelles ( gondolas ) the plants are drop-shaped since Year 1995/96. The design of this striking gondola was designed by the British architect Lord Norman Foster, who has, inter alia, also designed the dome of the Reichstag in Berlin. In Germany and many other countries of the tower to the foundation wears green color graded rings which are becoming lighter from bottom to top. On islands, the manufacturer offers the alternative of a gradation in blue as it has been implemented on the island of Borkum. The NCS - gradation (NCS = Natural Color Scheme) is to better integrate the plant towers in the horizon. The rotor blades are the only ones on the market on leaf tips like the winglets of aircraft that the technical term is for this tips. Furthermore Enercon waived the use of permanent magnets made of neodymium and instead it uses externally excited ring generators.
Enercon builds exclusively onshore plants and offshore installations rejects because of the technical complexity from.
Important plant types
The following are the main types of wind turbines are listed by Enercon and concisely. Detailed information on the equipment in question and the full list of all manufactured by Enercon wind turbines can be found in the main article linked above, or range of Enercon.
The wind turbine mass-produced since 2006 E-82 is one of the currently most commonly constructed wind turbines in Germany. It has a rotor diameter of 82 meters and originally had a generator with a capacity of 2 MW, which was designed for medium to weak wind conditions. Meanwhile, the basic version, featuring several sub-variants. While the rotor diameter remained unchanged from 2009 came further variants added with 2.3 and 3 MW, which were designed for moderate to heavy wind conditions. In April 2014 introduced with the E-82 E5 a total of five sub-variant with 2.3 MW, which is to be produced from the beginning of 2015 in series. This three variants for medium wind sites exist from that date (each with 2, 2.3 and 3 MW) for medium wind sites and 2 variants with 2.3 and 3 MW for strong-wind locations.
Offered is the E-82 on various steel and hybrid towers with hub heights of 78-138 meters, with the high towers are used only for medium wind sites. The total height of the plants so that reaches up to 179 meters.
In the E -101 produced since 2011 is a landlocked country conditioning in the 3 MW class, which was originally designed for medium wind sites. It corresponds in its interpretation of the original E-82, but both rotor surface and its performance increased by about 50%. As with E-82 E3 of the generator is water cooled. The system is offered with 99, 135 or 149 meter high precast concrete tower and can be optionally equipped with a rotor blade heating, prevents the loss of revenue due to ice formation in winter. The prototype of the wind turbine was erected in mid-June 2011 Görmin in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Two more prototypes, where until 2012 the survey will take place for the receipt of the unit certificates incurred in Haren. In August 2011, the first E -101 was completed with 135 meter hub height is Kleingladenbach, it was also the first system that was shipped.
In April 2014 Enercon announced a sub-variant for strong-wind sites, which is called E -101 E2. Series production of this type, which is equipped as the base variant with a 3 MW generator is to be paid, to start early in 2016. Until that time, over 1,000 MW of this type were already installed.
From the E -115, there are two sub-variants with 2.5 and 3 MW. While the former is a pronounced low wind system, the latter has been designed for medium wind sites, which she is there to supplement or replace the E -101, from which it was developed. On a site with 6.5 m / s has a mean annual wind speed the E-115/3MW per year should provide about 9.3 million kWh of electrical energy, compared to the same wind conditions for certified e- 101- 3MW yield by 14% corresponds. Production is scheduled to start in mid-2014, the prototype was built in 2013 in Lower Saxony Lengerich. A special feature of the system is the two-part rotor blade, which will allow beside cost reductions in leaf production and an easier accessibility of inland sites by facilitating sheet transport.
The E-126 is manufactured in small series and was made in 2010 after a performance increase to 7.6 MW by establishing the Vestas V164 - 8.0 in January 2014, the most powerful wind turbine in the world. In each case, multiple copies are available in the wind farms Ellern, Estinnes, bumps, Werder / Kessin and in Aurich- Georg field. The prototype was built in 2007 in the wind farm Rysumer neck at Emden, where a yield of around 20 GWh per year was expected. Originally ordered the E-126 have a capacity of 6 MW and was little turbulent for high wind sites certified (IEC IC). After a revision made in 2010 new E-126 make wind turbines 7.6 MW and are also approved for IEC IA. A special feature of the E-126 is the fact that, as has hitherto only Enercon system via two-part rotor blades. This design was necessary, as can be particularly long blades ashore only to transport heavy. The inner part of an E -126 rotor blade consists of sheet steel and is approximately 24 meters long, the outer part with a length of around 35 meters is like most rotor blades made of fiberglass reinforced plastic. Offered is the E-126 on a hybrid tower with 135 meter hub height, the overall height is 198.5 meters.
The entry Enercon in the hydropower project began in 2001. Purpose, a new turbine with particularly high efficiency has been developed, based on the experience from the wind. As a pilot project two turbines have been taken with a total of 2300 kW in Raguhn at the trough into operation in June 2009.
Already in June 2007 had announced to equip the Weserkraftwerk Bremen at the Weser barrage near Bremen -Hemelingen with two Kaplan turbines, each with 5 MW rated power Enercon. Construction began in May 2008. On 11 November 2011, the plant was the first time for a three-month trial period in operation. Should be saved with their annual 35,500 tons of carbon dioxide. There were installed two generators of the type of E-82 wind turbines. Both should meet annually produce about 42 GWh of electricity, serves the needs of approximately 17,000 households, if one assumes 2500 kWh of electricity consumption per household per year.
In February 2010, a start was made to mount the generator and turbine for the Prater power plant in Munich. The generator comes from Enercon, an intermediate transmission is not required. The impeller has a diameter of 2.3 m and a mass of about 30 tons. The capacity of the plant is 2.5 MW, the proposed energy yield approximately 12.7 GWh per year.
Seawater desalination plant
The Enercon seawater desalination plant operates based on the principle of reverse osmosis ( use of membranes ). According to the manufacturer, while no chemicals for treating water are needed. Through a special patented design of the system should be more flexible than other reverse osmosis seawater desalination plants, this energy-saving and operation. This Enercon system is very energy efficient, environmentally friendly and well suited by the possibility of flexible operation for harnessing power from wind turbines.
Enercon has its own small shipping company Enercon GmbH, based in Aurich Shipping. The shipping company was formed after the Enercon E -Ship 1 had built. The cargo ship has also next to a diesel driven via a drive by Flettner rotors and is thus a rotor ship. The four developed by Enercon Flettner rotors have a height of 27 m and a diameter of 4 m. The goal is a fuel saving of 30-40% on a ride of 16 knots. The E-Ship 1 is transported for Enercon parts of wind turbines from the port of Emden. The ship was built at the Lindenau -Werft in Kiel and completed after its bankruptcy in 2010 when Cassens Shipyard in Emden.
Enercon is also involved in the railway infrastructure company Aurich -Emden with 48 percent, the majority shareholder (51 percent) is the town of Aurich.
Enercon and the public
Relationship with trade unions
Enercon has been accused to prevent unionization of its employees. Union members who wanted to establish a works council will, threatened with transfer and termination. In Izmir plant 70 workers were dismissed because they had joined the union Birlesik Metal -Is. However, there are also works that have a works council, though - as presented by the IG Metall - in the case of the site Magdeburg after referral to the local labor court, which classified the election as legally compliant. Trade unionists also criticize the high proportion of temporary workers in the total number of employees in the Enercon Group, as well as the fact that Enercon was not applying the collective labor contract and, therefore, pay below average. In September 2013, came up with the aid of IG Metall first to elections by election committees for council election in the service companies Enercon, nine out of a total of more than 100 subsidiary companies of the Group. More council elections in subsidiaries were initiated in the spring of 2014, again with the aid of IG Metall. Priorities were different independent legal entities to the Enercon locations in Aurich and Magdeburg. In many cases, support the specific works in the previous year, the choice of the employee representatives.
Enercon is said to have an extremely closed corporate policy. The magazine brand eins compared the communication behavior of the company in April 2012 open with North Korean methods.
Under the name Windblatt every three months seems a company magazine online and as a printed edition. Topics include current projects of the company, technology, and transportation of the Enercon wind turbines, and collaboration with suppliers.