Enjoining good and forbidding wrong
What is right and what is wrong prohibit (Arabic الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر al - amr bi- ʾ l -ma ʿ ruf wa - ʾ n- nahi ʿ ani - ʾ l - munkar ) is an important Islamic principle of Qur'anic origin: " You enjoin what is right, and forbids what is evil. " ( Sura 3, verse 110).
Justification of the principle
Even in the Qur'an is this principle, which in the modern age has a central importance, mentioned: see the suras 3.110; 7.157; 9.71; 9,112; 22.41. It is the highest duty of the ruler to be that tenet (see Hisba ). The Islamic orthodoxy has added during the Mihna this moral standard of the five pillars ( al -Arkan al - chamsa ), which the Caliph al - Ma'mun caused by his entrance into Baghdad, to proclaim the failure of this principle.
His moral- ethical significance also illustrates a recirculated to the Prophet Muhammad Hadith Collection Sahih in the tradition of Muslim ibn al - Hajjaj, in which he, inter alia, the period of political turmoil the heart does not know what is right, and do not forbid what is evil: paraphrases as follows.
Al -Ghazali († 1111) considers this standard as the basis of religion and the divine message through the prophets; without them would reign anarchy and people would be doomed. According to Ibn Hanbal and al-Tabari is its implementation in society religious duty, while al - Hasan al- Basri it classifies merely as a voluntary performance of individuals.
How far this principle is rooted in the Islamic world of thought is also confirmed in the extension of the five pillars of Islam through jihad and by naming this same principle as the cornerstone of Islam. This is done this time not by a prophet saying, but by reference to an appropriate remark of one of the companions ( sahaba ) of the Prophet.
Sura 3, Verse 110 emphasized that the Muslim community is different just by compliance with this principle from others:
"You ( believers) are the best nation that has arisen among the people. You enjoin what is right, forbidding what is evil and believes in God. "
The in this verse - " the best community that has arisen among the people ... " - broader self-understanding is an important element of Muslim identity to the present day. This also the claim to be superior to all other religious communities connects. Originally refers to the Koranic exegesis ( Tafseer ) the verse only to those who have emigrated during Muhammad's work as a prophet from Mecca to Medina, but extends the circle on the Prophet's companions sahaba ( Sahaba ) in total. In modern understanding in each historical period is the " best community " the community of all Muslims.
The principle in the modern
The occasion of the 19th Conference of the Foreign Ministers of the Organization of the Islamic Conference adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam ( August 5, 1990 ) engages in Article 22 of that principle, taking into account the Islamic legal norms of the shari'a back:
"Everyone Shall have the right to advocate what is right, and propagate what is good, and warn against what is wrong and evil accor ding to the norms of Islamic Shari'ah. "
In the basic order of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on 3 January 1992 states in Chapter 5 ( " rights and obligations"), Article 23: The State shall protect the Islamic faith, applies the sharee'ah enjoins what is right, and forbids what is evil. It fulfills the duty to call (men) to Islam ( Da'wah )
At the Islamic University of Umm al - Qura ( Mecca ) is a named according to this principle Chair with courses and master's degree, which only has this moral obligation on the topic. Click here to download the University this chair is not mentioned.
The Islamic religious police practices in many Muslim countries from the institutional proceedings anchoring of this principle.