The Enz in the large Enzschleife between Unterriexingen and Untermberg
The Enz is the longest left tributary of the Neckar with the greatest water flow of all. According to her the Enz in Baden- Württemberg is named.
- 2.1 Flora and Fauna
- 2.2 Economy
The Enz flows through two large natural areas; in the upper half of its course it drains with its tributaries, the eastern half of the northern Black Forest, then it flows through the southwestern German Gäulandschaft, mostly in the Neckar basin.
The Enz including their main source Bach Poppelbach a flow length of about 105 kilometers. However, unusually, her right tributary Nagold, which opens in Pforzheim at its exit from the Black Forest in them longer, ie almost twice as long as you own the headwaters to get there; also leads the Nagold at the mouth twice as much water. Thus is above the Pforzheim Nagold hydrographic the main strand of the river system of the Enz, which is expected to be about 149 miles long, which is below the Neckar tributaries, the third longest, according to the systems of Kocher and Jagst.
The Enz leads her name without added only from the village Calmbach where Enz Large and Small Enz flow together. The Great Enz has two approximately 5 km long tributary rivers, Poppelbach and Kaltenbach, which unite in Gompelscheuer. As with the Source of the Danube in Donaueschingen this only the beginning of the roll ( Great) Enz is symbolized by the nearby Enzbrunnen and this similarly misleading marketed touristy.
With regard to water quantity and size of the catchment area is coming from the south Poppelbach the main source river, which from the west coming Kaltenbach has a slightly greater length and higher source location. The Poppelbach rises south, just 1 km north of Nagold source to 822 m ( district broom field); Kaltenbach north-west, on the southern slope of Schramberg to 907 m ( district Forbach in the Murg valley ).
Large Enz and headwaters in the Black Forest
From the confluence of Poppelbach and Kaltenbach the Big Enz initially flows through a narrow wooded valley that opens to a small gradient step in the much broader valley of the leading- west of Rombach. The Valleys of the Enz, Rombach and other western tributaries of the upper reaches are characterized to trough down by glaciers from the last ice ages Karen. After the valley widening of Enzkloesterle the Enz valley narrows again to the confluence of the next shaped by glaciers valley of Kegeltals at Sprollenhaus. From the previous East direction to the north einschwenkend, flows through the Big Enz in a steep valley dependent mostly wooded sandstone plateaus of the northern Black Forest. From the well-known seaside resort of Wildbad altwürttembergischen the valley is densely populated. On Calmbach where the Little Enz opens, follow courtyards at the Enz and Neuenbürg. There, the Enz encloses a large loop with a spur castle Neuenbürg. The Schwarzwaldtal the Enz, together with the valley of the Great Enz from Gompelscheuer, a length of approximately 38 kilometers and ends with the entry into the Kraichgau at Birkenfeld above Pforzheim.
Enztal in Gaeu and Neckarbecken
After emerging from the Black Forest, the Enz flows through to its confluence with the Neckar Gäulandschaften the shell plates of the Southwest German cuesta land. Geographically, the Enz valley between Birkenfeld and Enzberg is expected to be north continuing Kraichgau, below it to extending between Stuttgart and Heilbronn Neckar basin.
In Pforzheim, the only city on the river Enz Enz flow ( mean water: 6.3 m³ / s) and Nagold ( 11.7 m³ / s). Between Lomersheim and Vaihingen Enz now wide meanders relatively strong, the valley has very steep slopes impact here. Between Bietigheim and Besigheim are two abandoned Talschleifen, Hirschberg and fallow mountain are their circulation mountains. Northeast of Besigheim, in the municipality of Walheim, opens the Enz in the Neckar.
Overview of the tributaries
- Eyach, from left between courts on the Enz and Neuenbürg, 18.5 km and 52.6 km ².
- Small Enz, from right in Calmbach, 20 km and 88 km ².
- Nagold, from right in Pforzheim, 90.4 km and 1151 km ².
- Strudelbachhalle, right at Enzweihingen, 15 km and 55 km ².
- Glems, right at Unterriexingen, 47.2 km.
- Leudelsbach, right between Unterriexingen and Untermberg, 6.5 km and 22.7 km ².
- Lubrication, left at Vaihingen, 12.1 km and 47.4 km ².
- Metter, from left in Bietigheim, 28 km.
The Enz flows through primarily the circles Calw, Enz, Pforzheim (city circle) and Ludwigsburg. Some headwaters of tributary streams of the Great Enz and the upper reaches of the Cold Bach are some sections in the district of Rastatt.
Until the major territorial changes 1803 and 1806 the running of the Enz smaller sections was primarily on altwürttembergischem area, whereas in old Baden or ritterschaftlichem area. Wildbad, Neuenbürg, Vaihingen, Bietigheim and Besigheim are altwürttembergische office cities. The current areas of the district of Rastatt and the Enz to Pforzheim ( districts Brötzingen, Pforzheim, Eutingen, Niefern ) belonged to Baden. In Oberriexingen dominion was divided reichsritterschaftlich - of Württemberg.
Environment and Economy
Flora and Fauna
The Enz is in the lower section with their auetypischen bank structures an ideal habitat for many flowing waters typical plant and animal species. Many of the oxbow lakes and floodplain forests are protected as habitats, the Enz valley sections and even as the nature reserve at Vaihingen - Roßwag and Leudelsbach estuary at Unterriexingen are part of the European protected areas system Natura 2000.
In the shallow water areas up to 10,000 larvae of mayflies and caddis flies, dragonflies, beetles, snails and mussels have been counted per square meter. Also Strömer, mullet, nose and bullhead have their spawning grounds here.
From early summer, the Enz is locally strongly verkrautet with Flutendem ranunculus and milfoil.
Some rare and endangered species live year-round on the Enz, which is also important passage station for several migratory birds. These include, inter alia, Kingfisher, Common Sandpiper, Common Merganser, Grey Wagtail, Moorhen and dippers. Other guests and residents of the pollard willows and riparian woodlands are Wagtail, Yellow Warbler, Spotted Flycatcher, Nightingale and oriole.
In the Black Forest to the beginning of the 20th century was the rafting of importance. Like the neighboring rivers Murg and Nagold was the Enz for transport of logs, but especially of logs, used. At this time remember Schwallungen ( storage ponds that were drained to the Holztrift ) as the Poppel and the Kaltenbachsee at Gompelscheuer. In the Black Forest Enztal today dominate the timber industry and tourism business.
In the limestone area of the river, farming has a certain importance. In steep terraced vineyards of Enztal hanging wine production.
Manufacturing and service industries are concentrated in Pforzheim (jewelery, precious metals, watches, trade, administration), but are also found in smaller centers in the catchment area of Stuttgart (especially Bietigheim- Bissingen ).
The Enz is traversed in its upper reaches, especially of whitewater canoeists. The most popular section is the sophisticated spa gardens in Bad Wildbad route. The water is limited to protect the ecosystem in some sections of the lower course:
- Enz: Traffic control at the weir Mühlhausen Mühlhausen no driving on the loop at a red light signal
- District of Ludwigsburg: Entering the shore and landing only to the designated entry and exit points. No entering the gravel islands and gravel banks, no camps, barbecues and fire make the shore, except at designated and designated places May 1 to September 30: Locking Roßwag ( river km 34.12 ) to Vaihingen Seemühle ( 29.94 km ) same period, but until Sagmuhle Bietigheim- Bissingen (km 13.16 ): at levels below 65 cm ( level Vaihingen ) prohibited Befahrung only by trained attendants, at levels below 45 cm