Da Costa (Greek ἔφηβος ephebos, young man, young man ') was known in ancient Greece, generally a boy who had brought the puberty behind.

The term Da Costa also a hierarchical student-teacher ratio may be indicated; besides, he is also used in connection with the youth of the gymnasium or Lyceum.

In Athens they understood from the 4th century BC under a ephebes a young man aged 18 years, who as a prerequisite for the attainment of full civil law a two-year state education received ( Ephebie ), which related to military service. The introduction of ephebes goes back to an economy measure: They replaced the 300 Scythian archers who previously perceived the police tasks in Athens. The Ephebie lasted until the 3rd century AD

Archaeological Examples of this are both in Greek vase painting and statuary art. Very fine examples of this are the blond head of the Acropolis, Da Costa from the Archaeological Museum of Agrigento and the so-called Kritios - boy.


  • Jean Henri Maire: Couroi et Courètes. Essai sur l' éducation sur les rites spartiate et d' adolescence dans l' Antiquité hellénique. Bibliothèque Universitaire, Lille, 1939.
  • Nigel M. Kennell: Ephebeia. A register of Greek cities with citizen workout system in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Weidmann, Hildesheim 2006, ISBN 3-615-00322-5.
  • C. Pélékidis: Éphébie. Histoire de l' éphébie attique, the origines à 31 av J.-C. Éd. de Boccard, Paris 1962.
  • Oscar William Reinmuth: The Ephebic Inscriptions of the Fourth Century BC Brill, Leiden 1971.
  • Pierre Vidal- Naquet: Le Chasseur noir et l' origine de l' éphébie athénienne. In: Essays, trans Le Chasseur noir. Formes de pensée et formes de société dans le monde grec. Maspéro, 1981.
  • Hans -Ulrich Wiemer: From the town school for aristocratic club? The Athenian Ephebie in the Roman Empire. In: Chiron. 41, 2011, p 487-537.