Ernst Krieck ( born June 6, 1882 in Voegisheim, † March 19 1947 in the internment Moosburg an der Isar ) was a German teacher, writer and professor. He is next to Alfred Baeumler as the leading Nazi scientists education.
After finishing high school Krieck went to the teacher training college in Karlsruhe. In the following activity as an elementary school teacher Krieck began to criticize the prevailing education system as mechanical and bureaucratic. Krieck formed at this time self-taught.
In 1910, his first literary work " personality and culture" appeared. 1917 published Krieck " The German state idea ", 1920 "The revolution of science," and finally in 1922, " Philosophy of Education ", the most important as Kriecks book is. For this book, Ernst Krieck received an honorary doctorate from the Ruprecht -Karls- University of Heidelberg.
After four more years of work as a freelance writer Krieck was appointed in 1928 at the Pedagogical Academy in Frankfurt am Main. By the end of the 20s he represented traditional views of liberal teachers in dealing with the education policy of the SPD, the center and the Catholic Church, but then took a turn. In 1931 he became a member of the nationalist -minded, anti -Semitic League of Struggle for German Culture. After he had a " healing on the Third Reich " proclaimed at the midsummer festival in 1931, he was demoted to the Pedagogical Academy in Dortmund. Especially in the Ruhr, he joined now often as a political orator. 1932 was Krieck member of the NSDAP and the National Socialist Teachers League. For further Nazi agitation he was suspended in 1932 as a professor.
After the " seizure of power" of the Nazis, he was set up in May 1933 as rector of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main and a professor of education and philosophy. Krieck became editor of the new journal in the People's Will, which is about two months appeared from 1933 to 1944 and should serve the representation of Nazi ideas of pedagogy. In this magazine also published many articles Krieck. 1934 Krieck went to the Ruprecht -Karls- University of Heidelberg, where he became a professor of philosophy and education, and officially - programmatic met with Bernhard Rust appearance in the summer of 1936. Since 1934, he also worked in the security office of the Reichsführer SS and made for this in the section Science informers. In 1935, he was in NSD covenant Gaudozentenführer in Baden. From April 1937 to October 1938 he was rector of the university. The respected by him as his life's work and the "core " of his philosophical doctrine " Völkisch - Political Anthropology " from the years 1936-1938 sparked heated controversy with the Nazi racial theorists, whereupon Krieck all party and academic offices niederlegte.1938 he stepped out of the SS and was honorably adopted the rank of SS - Obersturmbannführer. His chair in Heidelberg he held until the end of World War II.
In 1939 Krieck employee was on pseudoscientific anti-Semitic Institute for Research and elimination of Jewish influence on the German church life. In addition, he was made an honorary member of the Reich Institute for the History of the New Germany. In 1944 he was appointed to the leadership of the NSD League.
After the end of World War II Krieck was dismissed and interned by the U.S. occupying power from the high school service; He died on 19 March 1947 in immigration detention.
Looking at the biography Kriecks, it is noticeable that he became a professor without a high school diploma. Krieck, who grew up in the working-class background - his father was a bricklayer and small farmers - did not have the opportunity to attend high school. Therefore, the training as a primary school teacher for him was the only way to reach a higher education. With its full support of the Nazis, it was Krieck possible to be appointed only on teacher training to higher services. Krieck was dissatisfied with his resume and built his personal experiences in his social criticism with a. He won the hearts of his time.
" Philosophy of Education "
Kriecks ideas about education, which he describes in this book, were at that time very unusual. He intended the " scheduled to break the influence of the elders to the youth [ ... ] ". The key to the "right" education is the way how children grow up in social communities. She was more than planned buildout and therefore " functional". Because they 'll always be accomplished because where certain forms of community life interact with the child and mold it, they stand in contrast to the " intentional " approach between school and parents. With this theory he argued against the general ideas of the 1920s that education had to take place in rational school and university. He designed a three-layer model in which "functional " education should proceed: " The bottom layer of educational factors consists of the unconscious effects, bonds and relationships between man and man. They form the base of community life, the most immediate and strongest bond in organic structure [ ... ]. ", The second layer located at the level of conscious social action, for example, in the family or at work. Krieck wrote: " [ ... ] of any interaction going educational effects on those involved, even if these effects are neither intended nor be aware of. People are in it to each other forming powers. [ ... ] When two people are attending a business or a job, so they act consistently by compliance or educational contrast to each other. " Simplified can be from the principle of" all train all derived ". Only in the third layer would take place a rationally organized instruction, the specific intentions, methods and purposes are based. All three layers are of equal rank and interdependent. They could penetrate each other. Basically, the whole social life of have an educational implication. Here we encounter an essential concept of Krieck'schen educational theory, namely that of the "community." It is a " spiritual body " and thus a " living being ". Since every person is a member of communities, it is also educated on the particular type of expectation and contributes its part to educate others on. The highest form of community is the "people" to which all stand in a member -company relationship. In this context Krieck distinguishes four forms of mutual " foreign education":
It must be said that Krieck not recognize each unit as a community. To explain these forms of education selects Giesecke the example of the family: The family as a community educates its members, for example the children. These educate each other and by their ideas and the family as a community. The communities educate other communities, such as neighboring families. Furthermore, describes two forms of " self-education ":
Unanswered remains the question of how communities can educate themselves, if this is not done at least through the initiative of its members. With the individual " self-education " is meant the power yielded by the individual, by his own version provides from the different education requirements and tries to meet them.
In place of the actual education occurs in Krieck the " breeding ". It was a process of collective insertion of man. This refers to the shaping of an individual within a community by fixed values imagination and a standard evolutionary transition. The goal is to develop a set "types". Only the "type" conformed individual become a " full member " of the community and was the result of the forming and growth process.
" National Political Education"
Krieck joined the National Socialist Teachers' Association on January 1, 1932. His educational science ideas were particularly evident in the work " National Political Education". Krieck calls it a " politicization " of science. Due to the emergency situation in which Germany befände, now all efforts should be directed to the original productive perspectives. Even the introduction of this paper begins with the significant statement: " The era of pure reason ', which, unconditional ' and ' value-free ' science is finished. " Consequently, he classified so-called " political opponents " and supporters of the new item. Former are mainly to be found in liberalism, individualism, collectivism, and pacifism. The new carrier of the "political" science is the National Socialist movement itself he Called for in his previous works, that the educational science should describe the educational impact for the community, he now explains the educational significance of the Nazi mass movement.
About the Community Krieck says that she should be so ordered again that the "people" again as " organic " totality appears and understand the individual members as " members ". The state assumes the role of a " taskmaster ", which will have regard to the whole people to the conscious participation in this task. Here is a basic intention of the Nazi ideology is clear that sees only realized by the reformed education of youth, the "movement".
In the second part of his " National Political Education" Krieck developed a concept of school and education. Both are subject to a reform needs which can only be initiated by the " nationalist " community. School provides for Krieck still no place is to be taught in the values, norms and goals. Instead, he describes the function of the " folkish " reformed school: "The principle of ethnic education reform is, classifying, incorporating in all directions, thus from the organic bond formation can grow. "
Another important aspect of his work is the notion of "race". The purely biological interpretation of the word is rejected it and instead glorified as a mythical symbol: "race manifests itself as a rule of life, the attitude, direction of will and history by working power, which is revealed from the instinct, the feeling of life [ ... ] and thus [ ... ] rises to the task. " the term must always be combined with the policy objectives and become defined by the ruling class. They serve the education and upbringing of the new man: " From the general mixing and Vermanschung the liberal age, a breed strong humanity is read and highly bred as a backbone of the nascent nation and supporting layer of the national state as a whole. " Further relevant is Kriecks idea of the leader principle. It seems for him the guarantee, possibly to compensate for the inevitable tensions that might arise from the break. Only this dogma could hold the movement in such a case.
His views on religion he described in 1943 in the book of salvation and power: Every religion comes from Asia; Religion is our art and meaningful ... alien species level and purposefully us Germans is the living God and belief in fate '.
1942: Goethe Medal for Art and Science
Writings (selection )
- Philosophy of Education, Eugen Diederichs, Jena 1930
- Völkischer State and National Education, Bündischer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1932
- National Political Education, Armanen, Leipzig 1932
- The German state idea, Armanen, Leipzig 1934
- Outline of Education. Five lectures. Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1936.
- Völkisch - political anthropology ( row, 3 volumes) Armanen, Leipzig 1936-1938
- National character and sense of mission. Political Ethics of the empire. Writings of the Reich Institute for the History of the New Germany, Armanen, Leipzig 1940
- As editor: people in the making. Political culture magazine.. (. UT also: bi-monthly magazine, initially also: Journal of renewal of Sciences) Armanen, Leipzig, 1933-1942 ( first in 1932 as a single item: EK, people in becoming Stalling library: fonts to the Nation, 38 publisher Gerhard Stalling, Oldenburg ) Issue 7: From German Art and Science. Special issue of the Heidelberg students to 550jährigen anniversary of the university, o, author, ibid 1936
- As alleged Hg, but Tarnschrift: People in the making. Armanen, Leipzig 1936.
- Anthology: EK, science, philosophy, higher education reform. ibid 1934