Erzincan ( zazaisch and Kurdish Erzingan, Erzingan; Armenian Երզնկա (Transcription: Erznka ) ) is a province in eastern Turkey, with the eponymous capital of Erzincan. Neighboring provinces in the east of Erzurum, Sivas to the west, in the south of Tunceli, Bingol in the southeast, southwest Elazığ and Malatya, the north Gümüşhane and Bayburt, and Giresun to the northwest. Erzincan has an area of 11,903 km ² and lies at an altitude of 1,185 m.
The counties are:
- Çayırlı (Kurdish: Mans, Zazaki: Manse )
- Kemah (Kurdish and Zazaki: Kemax )
- Kemaliye (Kurdish: EGIN, Zazaki: EGIN )
- Otlukbeli (Kurdish: Qerequlax )
- Refahiye (Kurdish: Gercan )
- Tercan (Kurdish and Zazaki: Tercan )
- Uzumlu (Kurdish: Cimin, Zazaki: Cimıne )
According to the census of 2012 living in Erzincan 217 886 people, with 94 598 stand alone (2011 ) live in the city of Erzincan. In comparison, the population in 2000 was 316 841. In Erzincan Turks, Kurds and Zaza live.
In Erzincan both Sunni and Alevi live. Originally, about half the population of Erzincan Alevis. Since the majority of the villages is Alevi, Alevi were far more affected by the emigration as Sunnis.
Hidir Abdal Sultan is a saint in the Alevis. His tomb is in the village Ocak ( Kemaliye ). He was the son of Sultan Ahmet Karaca. Hidir Abdal Sultan founded an Alevi religious and has just as his father spread Alevism in Anatolia. At its ceremony takes place every year in August a celebration in his village instead.
Hasan Efendi's tomb in the village Başköy ( Çayırlı ) is also a famous and important saint in the Alevis.
Erzincan is located in a highly vulnerable earthquake zone. In 1939 there was a great earthquake, the city of Erzincan was completely destroyed. The last major quake, there were 1992 with a magnitude of 6.8 and about 650 deaths.
Among the most well-known attractions include the Çağlayan Waterfall, which is located in the municipality Çağlayan and about 35 km from the city is situated. Below the waterfall there are some restaurants and picnic areas that are busy, especially during the summer months. The top of the mountain lies the Kirklar Türbesi, have visited Alevi tomb.
Erzincan belonged to the realm of the Hurrians, the Hittites conquered to this area. After the decline of the Hittites around 1200 BC, the Urartu reigned from 900 BC Erzincan was on the northern border of their empire. After the defeat of the Urartian against the Assyrians and the invasion of the Scythians and Cimmerians, this area was ruled by the Medes. 550 BC the Medes were replaced by the Persians here. After that, the area was part of Armenia. After Alexander the Great reigned from 70 BC the Romans after their victory over the Armenian king Tigranes II on Erzincan. Erzincan was the scene of fighting the Byzantines against the Parthians or Sassanids. 629 conquered the Byzantines under Heraclius Erzincan by the Sassanids back. Under the Caliph Osman conquered Habib 'm Mesleme in 655 Erzincan. After recapture by the Byzantines of the Vali of Malatya conquered in 859 Erzincan back to the Arabs. Mengücek Ahmet Gazi conquered for the Turkmenenherrscher Alp Arslan 1110, among others, Erzincan and founded a family dynasty, but which was not long.
1228 Erzincan fell to the Seljuks Kai Kobad I.. A little later the Mongols plundered the area. Until 1335 Erzincan remained under the rule of the Ilkhanate. After the Akkoyunlar and the first rule of the Ottomans Erzincan in 1402 fell to Tamerlane. After Tamerlane the Akkoyunlar ruled until 1473, which were then defeated by the Ottomans.
On August 11, 1473 the Battle of Otlukbeli took place in Erzincan. Fatih Sultan Mehmet 100,000 Ottoman soldiers from western Anatolia met Uzun Hasan and his 70 000 Akkoyunlu soldiers from eastern Anatolia. The battle ended in defeat for Uzun Hasan.
In 1502 Shah Ismail has captured from Iran Erzincan and made it his base. But after 1514 Erzincan finally came under the rule of the Ottomans.
In the summer of 1915, the Russian general, who was also the leader of the Russian Caucasian army and won the Battle of Sarıkamış moved, General Jew Nitsch to Central Anatolia before reaching Erzincan.
The next big event was the expulsion of the Armenian population in the year 1915. 1923 Erzincan was part of Turkey.
- Yıldırım Akbulut, former Prime Minister of Turkey
- Deniz Barış, football player
- Erman Kılıç, football player
- Hasan Ali Mete, actor
- Hagop II Nalyan, church leaders
- Arzu Şahin, singer
- Mustafa Sarıgül, writers, entrepreneurs and politicians
- Berrin Sulari, singer
- Davut Sulari, singer
- Edibe Sulari, singer
- Binali Yıldırım, a naval architect, politician and Minister of Transport