From 1978 to 1979 Eskil Erlandsson trained as a farmer and in 1981 also the exam for master farmer. Between 1989 and 1992, he also studied at the University of Växjö.
1977 Erlandsson worked as agricultural and forestry workers. 1979 and 1982 he worked as an ombudsman between each farmer.
From 1983 was Erlandsson kommunalråd of Ljungby. He retained this position until his election to the Swedish Parliament in 1994. In the Reichstag, he was also a member of the Committee on Tax Law, the Environment and Agriculture Committee and the Industry Committee.
On 6 October 2006 Erlandsson was appointed Minister of Agriculture in the government of Fredrik Reinfeldt. His title was changed in 2010 and Erlandsson is now Minister for Rural Affairs.
Eskil Erlandsson is married and has a son and a daughter.