Eugen Mittwoch

Eugen Wednesday ( born December 4, 1876 in Schrimm at Posen; † November 8, 1942 in London ) was a German orientalist. He is considered a founder of modern Islamic studies in Germany and as a major Jewish scholar.


Wednesday initially intended to become a rabbi and graduated from the Rabbinical Seminary in Berlin. In 1899 he received his doctorate with Eduard Sachau. His habilitation was 1905. During the First World War led Wednesday's news site for the Orient as the successor of the founder Baron Oppenheim and Karl Emil damage bingers of Schowingen.

After an initial activity at the University of Berlin in 1915-16 and a brief appointment at the University of Greifswald in 1917, he was from 1919 until his dismissal by the Nazi government in 1935 professor of Semitic Studies at the University of Berlin. During this time he also acted as a major Jewish scholars, among others, he was an academic teacher of the legendary " Rav ," Rabbi Joseph Ber Soloveitchik. Retired in regularly that Wednesday, 1935 and later received remuneration of Berlin University, was due to personal intervention by Benito Mussolini. Wednesday was the leading expert of Abyssinia in Europe, and that as a scientist for the military operating in Ethiopia Italians of considerable importance. Between 1910 and 1930, made ​​Wednesday from young Falasha and was an important member of the Aid Association of German Jews. He served as past chairman of the Society of Promotion of Science of Judaism and was also Managing Director of the Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith. As one of the first German Jews spoke Wednesday modern Hebrew.

During the 1930's Wednesday was head of the Berlin office of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. He emigrated to France in 1938 and went in 1939 with his family to London. His mother was murdered in the concentration camp Bergen- Belsen.


A complete list of publications from Wednesday can be found in the " Festschrift " by Walter Gottschalk on Wednesday 60th birthday. Major publications:

  • Hebrew inscriptions from Palmyra. (Hebrew inscriptions at Palmyra ). In 1902.
  • Ibn Saad: Biography of Muhammad to escape. ( Biography of Muhammad up to the time of his flight ). Published by Eugen Wednesday and Eduard Sachau. In 1905.
  • The Arabic textbooks of ophthalmology. (The Arabic manuals of ophthalmology ). Published by I. Hirschberg, with the co -operation of I and E. Lippert Wednesday. In 1905.
  • The literary activity Hamza al - Isbahanis. ( The literary activity of Hamza al - Isbahani ). A contribution to ancient Arabic literary history. , 1909.
  • Abyssinian Kids, 1910 f
  • For the genesis story of the Islamic prayer and worship. ( On the origins of Islamic prayer and cult ). In 1913.
  • Hebrew inscriptions in the synagogue of Aleppo. (Hebrew Inscriptions at the Synagogue of Aleppo ) by M. and E. Sobernheim Wednesday., 1915.
  • Mohammed 's biography, 1917.
  • Hebrew etymology. (Hebrew Etymology ). In 1923.
  • From Yemen. Hermann Burchardt's latest trip to Yemen ( From the Yemen: Hermann Burchardt 's last expedition to South Arabia ). , 1926.
  • Moses Mendelssohn: Collected Works. Jubilee Edition. Published by I. Elbogen, I. Guttmann and E. Wednesday. From 1929 to 1932.
  • The Amharic version of the Soirees de Carthage. (The Amharic version of the Soirees de Carthage ). In 1932.
  • Johann Heinrich Mordtmann: Sabaean inscriptions. Friedrichs, de Gruyter & Co., Hamburg, 1931.
  • Johann Heinrich Mordtmann: Himjarische Inscriptions in the State Museums of Berlin. Hinrichs, Leipzig 1932.
  • Johann Heinrich Mordtmann: Old South Arabian inscriptions. Pontifico Instituto Biblico, Rome in Orientalia, No. 1-3, 1932, issue 1, 1933.

Posthumous publications

  • Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century, by GR Driver. Oxford, 1953. ( Eugen Wednesday delivered to crucial preparatory work).