Yevgeny Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин / Evgeny Onegin ) is an epic poem by the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. Pushkin wrote this poem 1823-1830 and gave it the genus name novel in verse. In the complete version of the work for the first time in 1833 has been released. Early as 1836 appeared first German translation of the first chapter and 1840, the first German translation under the title Total Eugene Onegin.
The narrative framework
Pushkin 's poem is a fixed frame. He can tell the following story about a narrator:
Eugene Onegin, a young St. Petersburg loafer has tasted all the pleasures of city life and feels only a sense of inner emptiness. An inheritance makes him suddenly to the landowner, after which he leaves the city, to have a go as agrarians. After a few days the country life disgusted him but at the same way. Its also still a young neighbor Lensky, an enthusiastic poet, who had studied in Göttingen, introduces him in the House of Larin, with their daughter Olga, he engaged in the course of history. The older, Tatiana, falls in love with Eugene and confesses it to him in a letter. Eugene stated that he was not suited for marriage, points to the transience of girl crushes and warns them against too hasty bonds. At Tatiana's name day he dances only demonstrative with her sister. Lensky is outraged and sends him out of jealousy a claim. Eugen kills him in a duel and leaves become moody about the outcome of the duel, his estate. Olga consoles himself and soon marries a Ulanenoffizier; Tatiana is married in Moscow with a general. Random Eugen meet them in St. Petersburg on a ball again and this time he actually falls in love with her. He confesses his turn in a letter his love, but Tatjana rejects him, even though she still loves him.
Pushkin's poem is by authoritative literary world early on as a kind of encyclopedia, " Encyclopedia of Russian life " ( Belinsky ), " Literary Encyclopedia " ( Fennel, according to Johnston, etc ) have been detected. The main character of the poem, the narrator (not to be confused with the author himself! ), Does not leave the stage for a single moment. He commented, interpreted and parodies not only the act, but everything to do with this action in the broadest sense of the word, as well as everything that is used to describe such an act could be used respectively. Are dealt with in the most precise form in particular, all known styles of literature, all literary themes, all in-progress literary quarrels and - not least - Pushkin's own development history in the literature (including especially what he sees as his blunders ), where here irony and sarcasm is not saved. Pushkin support his narrator in this endeavor so that he accompanied each statement with the music of their own, ie by the shape duplicated ( the medium as message, 1823 ). The work is therefore regarded as absolutely unique if only because this fusion of form and content. Unfortunately, the fact that it is a work of art in the form of a poem in Eugene Onegin, lost again and again out of sight. This explains that the libretto of the opera of the same name, as well as the screenplays of several films based solely on the narrative framework of the poem, is always being ignored that this is just the story of a character yes and with Pushkin's poem only in passing something to has to do. Lots to do so, however, have the poems (novels in verse ) by some younger writers such as Vikram Seth and Les Murray, based on Pushkin's work, in Seth's case, even in the form.
Eugene Onegin is divided into eight Cantos ( chapter) to about 50 verses. Each stanza contains 14 lines. In these vessels Pushkin pours polemic, poetry and epic poetry; Odes, elegies, love confessions, landscaping and company descriptions, satires, epigrams, parodies, satires, literary criticism, teaching, etc., etc. One of the main targets of his attacks is what is called today in many parts of the German-speaking poetry. About his " poets" Lensky and his " sentimental " poetry, he makes not only in comments and direct imitations funny, but lets him out of the way as a kind of punishment for his crimes against the poetry already in the middle of the poem.
As an example of Pushkin's art is mentioned often the beginning of the 5th Cantos. For example, verse II is often printed under the title Winter also as an independent poem. Properly understood, the verse ( and Pushkin's handling of form) but only in its frame. In stanza I, we see the winter through the eyes of Tatiana. In stanza II, the narrator turns it into a poem. In stanza III Pushkin mixed himself a, highlighting both Tatiana's point of view as well as the poem the narrator and expects the same time with two fellow poets ( Vyazemsky and Baratynski ) from - training course in 14 short lines.
In science, you are agree that it is any of the major representatives of Russian literature ever been able to take over Pushkin's " novel in verse " successfully, and this is repeatedly emphasized. At the same time - often by the same experts - to hear the opinion, Pushkin had with his Eugene Onegin the Russian realistic novel " paves the way " or somehow " initiated " this development. This view is reinforced by statements because of many Russian writers who see themselves as the successors of Pushkin. It will be, following Henry James, but have to ask what a strict form and the ideals of accuracy and brevity as strong as verpflichtetes poem Eugene Onegin with the "large, loose, baggy monsters ," as Henry James, the great Russian novels of the 19th century called, is said to have in common and how it would have them consequently the way to prepare.
The verse novel is considered a masterpiece of Russian literature. With him, Pushkin began the period of the great, realistic and poetic novel. For the first time in Russian literature here appear to people who found themselves in the society of that time in their thousands - especially Eugene Onegin as a prototype of the superfluous man. The realism but also reflected in the more than one hundred minor characters.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composed to a libretto of his brother, which was based on Pushkin's original, the opera Eugene Onegin Lyric Scenes with the subtitle, which was premiered on 29 March 1879 Moscow Maly Theatre. The theme was implemented by John Cranko ballet to music by Tchaikovsky in progress by Kurt- Heinz Stolze and 1965 premiered by the Stuttgart Ballet.
There are also various film adaptations, most recently Onegin (1999) with Ralph Fiennes in the title role.
Translations into German
- Carl Friedrich von der Borg, Eugene Onegin, First Section, in the refractor. A Centralblatt Germans living in Russia. Dorpat, 1836 in five episodes, beginning on August 1, 1836 in the No. 14, ending at No.18 on August 29, 1836
- R. Lippert, publisher of Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig 1840
- Friedrich Bodenstedtstraße, Publishing House of Decker 's Privy - Hofbuchdruckerei, Berlin 1854
- Adolf Seubert, Reclam, Leipzig 1872/73
- Dr. Blumenthal, Moscow 1878
- Dr. Alexis lupus, only the chapter 1, Leipzig and St. Petersburg in 1899
- Theodor Commichau, Verlag G. Müller, Munich and Leipzig 1916
- Theodor Commichau and Arthur Luther, Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig 1923
- Theodor Commichau and Arthur Luther and Maximilian Schick, SWA -Verlag, Leipzig and Berlin 1947
- Elfriede Eckardt Skalberg, publishing Buhler, Baden- Baden 1947
- Theodor Commichau and Konrad Schmidt, Weimar 1958
- Theodor Commichau and Martin Remané, Reclam, Leipzig 1965
- Manfred von der Ropp and Felix Zielinski, Winkler, Munich 1972
- Seep, Reclam, Stuttgart, 1972 ( prose translation )
- Rolf -Dietrich V, Wilhelm Schmitz Verlag, Giessen 1980; Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig, 1999, ISBN 978-3-458-34224-3
- Ulrich Busch, Manesseplatz, Zurich 1981
- Sabine Baumann, in collaboration with Christiane grains Stroemfeld, Frankfurt am Main 2009
- August Bernhard,
- Max Kalbeck,
- Wolf Ebermannsdorf, together with Manfred Koerth
Translation into Spanish
- Eugenio Oneguin. Novela en verso. Versión en español directa del ruso en la forma del poética original, notas e ilustraciones de Nicolás Alberto Musso. Zeta Editores, Mendoza 2005.