The Ezāfe (variants: Eżāfe, Iḍāfa, Izafa, Izafat, İzafet, also Ezafe construction, etc.; persian اضافه Eżāfe, from the Arabic Idafa / إضافة / Iḍāfa / Connection ') denotes an enclitic particle, the attributes binds to its antecedent. This Syntagma called a " Ezāfe construction ". It can veritable " Ezāfe chains " are formed by each other attribute is connected through another Ezāfe, eg:

" The beautiful old house" = Persian: Xane Kohne -ye -ye qašang Persian خانهی کهنهی قشنگ (design: house - Ezāfe old - Ezāfe beautiful), (literally: The house, beautifully, which old)

The Ezāfe construction is typical of Iranian languages ​​, which is why the Persian pronunciation has naturalized. They do not appear in all Iranian languages ​​.

The shape of the Ezāfe varies from language to language. In some languages, there are for the various genera and case different forms of Ezāfe (eg Kurmanci ).


The Ezāfe has evolved from the Old Iranian relative pronoun, whose tribe ya- reads. Whether it has evolved directly from the simple relative pronoun, or from the Old Persian form of the relative pronoun, is not to decide. In Old Persian the relative pronouns are a composition of the demonstrative to ha - or - ta and the actual relative to ya, eg Nom.Sg.m.: haya, literally " which this ".

In Middle Persian the Ezāfe can still bind all the relative clauses in the antecedent. While this is still possible, for example, in Sorani, New Persian has lost this.

The Ezāfe construction was borrowed in the Ottoman and into Urdu.


  • Linguistic morphology
  • Iranian languages