A factory " Customize" from the Latin fabricare, is a production facility on an industrial scale, which brings together a large number of different operations and significantly manufactures products with the help of machines, production employees and management. The owner or operator of a factory one called earlier than producer, today mostly as an entrepreneur. The building in which this facility is housed is called a factory.

Factory and manufactory

Differences is the factory of the manufacturer, in which the mechanical equipment is usually only slightly and is mainly worked by hand in large sequential division of labor. It is also often possible for the employees to produce in homework. The material set up a factory on the other hand, there is a significant part of machines ( for accounting purposes the assets), which allows an increase in productivity. With increasing bureaucratization and division of labor, the term has been replaced by factory work or operation.


In the early days of the formation of manufactures ( even as the guild system ) these were funded by the state, as you saw in them the possibility to increase the export of valuable brands and take urgent needed cash. The actual rise of the factory system and hereby the transition from factories to factories begins with the advent of powerful mechanical devices in the late 18th century, the beginning of industrialization. This development began around 1770 in central England Cromford with the invention of the water frame by Richard Arkwright. 1783 founded the Elberfeld businessman Johann Gottfried Brügelmann with the textile factory in Cromford Ratingen the first factory on the continent. Founded in 1801, the Wülflingen ( now part of Winterthur ) Spinning Hard was the first factory in Switzerland.

In the following decades, the further mechanization of work processes by machines and in particular the invention of the steam engine accelerated industrialization and proliferation of modern factory.

The establishment and use of these machines could only be done with a large capital investment, which could not be achieved by many small, artisanal small business owners. This development led in many industries to large companies, which ousted the time of his popular house plants and independent small businesses in the wake of falling prices for factory products from many areas. The associated emergency situation of artisans continued until well into the 19th century and was at that time even questioned the need of manufacturing units arise.

Sociology of the factory

The factory operating displaced one hand, certain groups of producers, but on the other hand, he created next to the producing factory workers a number of other fields of work, such as a sales agent, technicians, work planners, foremen, supervisors and officials. The transition from handicraft and agricultural productions for producer's production was social consequences. It caused, inter alia, the following changes:

In the course of rationalization, globalization and automation fewer and fewer people working in Western Europe in the machine, and they come in the position of having to work through compaction produce more and more products in less time, summarized: the productivity can be increased.


Information on legislation relating to factories are found also in the Factory Act, labor standards and environmental protection.