Birch (Betula ) in autumn

The book -like ( fagales ) are an order of flowering plant ( Magnoliopsida ).


It contains, with few exceptions woody plants such as trees and shrubs. Ectomycorrhizal symbioses are almost always present. The roots usually have a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the (N -fixing ) Frankia. The simple leaves with toothed margin. Stipules are often present.

The plants are mostly monoecious getrenntgeschlechtig ( monoecious ), rarely dioecious. The flowers are borne in aged men or most kitten -like inflorescences. Pollination is by wind, still bloom are available. The usually dry fruits are often nuts or winged nutlets.


The book -like are within the euro Siden I, the sister group of the Cucurbitales. They include the following families:

  • Birch family ( Betulaceae )
  • Kasuarinengewächse ( Casuarinaceae )
  • Beech family ( Fagaceae )
  • Walnut Family ( Juglandaceae ) including Rhoiptelea
  • Myrtle family ( Myricaceae )
  • Note Fagaceae ( Nothofagaceae )
  • Ticodendraceae


  • Description of the organization in relation to APWebsite (English )