Federal District (Brazil)
The Federal District of Brazil is a federal district around the capital Brasília. The Federal District is the smallest and also the most densely populated part of Brazil, located in the central highlands in the middle of the state of Goiás.
Already in 1823 the idea of creating an artificial capital plan modeled after Washington was incorporated into a bill. The reasons given the uncertainty of the then principal and coastal city of Rio de Janeiro were called against external enemies as against civil unrest as well as a promotion of an underdeveloped country center. But it took until 1891 before the project was included in the Constitution.
In the following decades, sometimes with more, sometimes with less enthusiasm because planned and already partially built. Until the 1950s, it took under President Juscelino Kubitschek, the final planning and implementation of the Distrito Federal was conducted and entered April 21, 1960, with the move of President, Parliament and the Supreme Court in force.
Besides the capital Brasília ( 200,000 inhabitants), which accounts for roughly eight percent of the total area of 472.12 square kilometers, consists of the Federal District from 18 other administrative regions ( Regiões Administrativas ) with further 1.851 million inhabitants.
Until 1969, the Federal District stood before a prefect ( Prefeito ), since the district has a governor ( Governador ) as head and it sends out as any Brazilian State, three members of the Senate and as deputies to the Câmara dos Deputados.
The population figures in the following table are based on the census of 1 August 2000.
Much like about the Austrian capital Vienna, the federal district combines most part the powers of the authorities of two levels. Thus, there are only a legislature - instead of the usual one federal and one of the community - and only one executive power, which is by the Governor, at the same time holding the powers of a mayor, exercised. However, to be in the federal district several tasks that would otherwise be the responsibility of the states, exercised by the Union government, such as the regular police force.
Municipio neutron and Federal District 1834-1960
Before 1960 capital Brasília was, this was since 1763 Rio de Janeiro, in front of Salvador da Bahia. Already in 1834 they separated the city of Rio de Janeiro as the Municipio neutrons ( neutral city ) of the Province of Rio de Janeiro, thus creating a first capital district. With the end of the Brazilian Empire and the conversion of the provinces in the Federal States in 1889 from the neutron Municipio the Distrito Federal.
With the transfer of the capital to Brasília and the formation of the local Federal District, the previous in Rio de Janeiro was transformed into the State of Guanabara. 1975 Guanabara was part of the State of Rio de Janeiro.