The title of Fellow (English for equal, companion, comrade or member) denotes a (not in the legal sense ) belonging to the corporate member in academia.
In German-speaking Fellow means a belonging to a scientific institution in honor or guest member whose research is at least partially bankrolled by this, but does not have employment or contractual relationship is with her., Fellows also differ from professors in that they generally exempt from teaching load and are subject to little institutional constraints also regarding the scope, content and the results of their research.
The origins of the term in the English language, from which he was in the wake of politically motivated internationalization of European scientific enterprise (see also Bologna process) taken.
In British academic parlance, a Fellow referred to a scholar who is financially supported by a college or university for the purpose of research and / or teaching. However, not all these people really keep the title of " Fellow", and it is difficult to make accurate information on the application of this title. In the newer universities are research grants, which are almost always Interim places awarded to those who have a doctoral behind. ( Younger are normally appointed to research assistants academics with permanent salaries are often appointed as lecturers. )
In the older British universities many Fellows perceive pastoral responsibilities for the students of higher education. For example, belong to the University of Cambridge Fellows to the oldest academic university staff. These are not only responsible for teaching, research and the pastoral care of students; they also form a council to assist the master (or equivalent, such as the director of Homerton College, Cambridge ).
The term fellow is also used for selected members of the British learned societies. This lead him as well as a suffix, eg: Sir Alec Jeffreys FRS ( Fellow of the Royal Society). Other Fellows in this area are a Fellow of the British Academy ( FBA), a Fellow of Imperial College (FIC ), a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences ( FMedSci ), and Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering ( FREng ).
Scientific communities and companies
In addition, the term can also mean a fellow scholar. Again, the term generally used for " advanced " or seasoned professionals - in contrast to students or undergraduate students - used. Most often, the term Fellow - or derived therefrom Fellowship (stipend ) - used in a scientific context (eg Fulbright Fellow ). It can also be affected ( eg Guggenheim Fellowship, which is awarded also to artists ). To find this name is mainly engaged in scientific societies such as the American Physical Society (APS Fellow ), the Optical Society of America ( OSA Fellow ) or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Fellow ).
Like these companies also make use of larger companies the title Fellow, for example, Bell Labs ( Bell Labs Fellow ), Boston Scientific ( Boston Scientific Fellow ), IBM ( IBM Fellow ) or Intel (Intel Fellow ). This title corresponds to a rule of the highest attainable position of a technical career, that is a work in research and development, and can be reached in the company after many years of service. Sometimes these scientific staff to their research tasks " temporarily determine independently and without regard to commercial firms interests."
Another example is the International Atomic Energy Agency, in the visiting scholars are referred to from the Member States as " Fellows " and receive payment for the duration of their stay by the IAEA.