The financial plan is designed to preserve liquidity (solvency ) of an economic subject, such as a company or state.
If a debtor fails to make payment obligations, or he is not able to meet the due payment obligations, is according to § 17 in conjunction with § 16 Insolvency Act, the general reason for the opening of insolvency proceedings against. To avoid insolvency, the future cash receipts and disbursements from economic agents thus plan. A financial plan is, how much money is on which dates the planning period required and where they should be based. Existing or anticipated funding gaps, so-called shortages are revealed by a financial plan.
The financial plan is in addition to the financial accounting is another important instrument of the ( operational ) accounting. Solely from the financial accounting can not remove the task for " ensuring solvency at all times " required information: on the one in the Financial Accounting primarily based on past information (eg documentation of business cases). On the other hand, refer to the financial accounting both cash and non-cash transactions equal input. Among the non-cash operations include, for example, the operational depreciation of fixed assets, changes in inventories on the various accounts for stocks and commodities, but also the increase or decrease of receivables and payables.
As a striking example of this is the sale of goods listed on Aim: In the financial accounting of the business case leads to an increase in trade accounts receivable. There is here a gain and thus a revenue booked without actually making a deposit (understood as an increase in cash and cash equivalents ) is present. Such a business case to improve the earnings situation, but not the liquidity position of the company and thus may not be included in the financial planning (yet).
Subject of the financial plan is the related to the company as a whole ( always forward ) planning and control of all incoming and outgoing cash flows of the business entity. The often referred to as total financial budget financial plan consists of several different sub - or sub- plans ( partial budgets ). It is based for example on the sales plan, investment plan and production schedule.
In the area of real estate financing, a financial plan is worked out.
In the Federal Republic of Germany is called a financial plan of the Federal resolved by the federal government financial planning for the federal government. The budget is used to plan for the adoption of the annual federal budget and covers a period of five years. The first year is always the current financial year. The second year is covered by the draft budget for the coming year, so that after that follow three budget years. The financial plan is drawn up by the Federal Ministry of Finance. It is decided by the federal government along with the government draft for the federal budget to the middle of the year and then submitted to the Federal Council and the German Bundestag for information.
The legal basis for the preparation of the financial plan are the Stability and Growth Act of 1967 and the Budget Principles Law.
= Closing balance of cash force at the end of the plan period
- Budget law