First Council of Constantinople
The First Council of Constantinople Opel ( the second ecumenical council ) was called by Emperor Theodosius in 381, to resolve the ongoing dispute since 325 and the threat of schism between Trinitarians and Arians.
The so-called first Council of Constantinople Opel, which is considered the second ecumenical council, took 381 place under the reign of the Emperor Theodosius I, who stood inside Christianity as the state religion and enacted laws against paganism and in particular against Christian heresies. De facto, it was actually a Synod of the Eastern Roman bishops, the Bishop of Rome was not charged and had sent no legate. Nevertheless, the enforcement of the doctrine of the Trinity was fundamentally positioned and thereby set the final shape of Nicänisch - Constantinopolitan Creed. At the council, which met in the Irene Church, participated in a total of 150 bishops.
There was a final decision on the Arian dispute. Furthermore, the questioning of the divinity of the Holy Spirit through Makedonius I and the Macedonians was answered by turned out the true divinity of the Holy Spirit clearly. He was henceforth to get same reverence as they come also the Father and the Son.
The Emperor Theodosius statement explained, as a true Christian applies only who live in the religion that the Apostle Peter was delivered to the Romans and to the would the then Pope Damasus and the then Bishop of Alexandria, Petros confess; therefore applies, "so that we believe in the deity of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit at the same majesty and holy Trinity. " All others who did not want to accept this dogma should be regarded as heretics.
The so-called " Athanasian Creed ", which expresses the doctrine of the Trinity in a concise form, is still valid today in the Roman Catholic and other churches. It states: "Son of God is true God and true man. " "He is impassible and immortal in the Godhead " We also believe in the Holy Spirit, "but in humanity ... he died and was buried. " the perfect and true God. But who wishes to be saved must believe this of the Holy Trinity ". ( " The Church's faith in the documents of the teaching preaching ," Neuner / Roos )
Even before the Council of the Three Emperors edict was on 27 February 380 in Thessaloniki " Cunctos populos " adopted by the Roman emperors Theodosius I, Gratian and Valentinian II. It ended the nominal religion of the 4th century. The edict was directed formally to the population of Constantinople, but was addressed to the entire kingdom people. Content of the (Roman - Alexandrian ) faith is explained in the Trinity of God to the binding state religion, what is different, for heresy with all the attendant consequences that led to exile and church closures for now. The first death penalty 385 in Trier. However, the edict was never repealed, but formed a legal basis for the launched in the 13th century Office of the Inquisition.
In the decree, Emperor Theodosius after the Council of 381, he announced: "We believe, in accordance with the teaching of the Apostles and the Gospel, at the sole divinity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit under the assumption of equal sovereignty and loving Trinity. All who adhere to this belief, according to our general commands the name (Greek: Catholic ) Christians bear " All outsiders who disagreed with the Trinitarian confession were designated by the emperor as a heretic. . In the same decree, he announced them to draconian measures: " The others, delusional and insane as they are, should bear the reproach of their heretical beliefs. Their meeting places are not called churches. They are primarily the divine punishment, but then suffer the punishment of our disgrace that we want to prove to them according to God's will. " ( Church History 1955)
This council shows yet again reaffirms the immense importance of the subsequent reception by other councils or the general sense of the faith of the Church, but it was rezipiert at Chalcedon and thus officially included in the series of ecumenical councils.
Heresies that were explicitly condemned in canon I, are: Eunomianer, Arians, Macedonianer ( Pneumatomachi ) Sabellians, Marcellianer, Photinianer and Apollinarier.
The first Council of Constantinople Opel is also attributed to the Nicene - Constantinopolitan Creed.