As flood light is referred to
- The lighting system for large areas, particularly in sports facilities, industrial facilities, ports, major railway stations, in particular freight and shunting yards ( in German speaking countries, but only in exceptional cases, as where it is instead mostly used a number of smaller lamps), as well as at concerts or for illuminating sights.
- The illumination of the transparent plates (typically acrylic) by irradiation with light in the narrow side, and the spread in the plate by total reflection: wherever a fabricated from such a disk plate carries a printing or engraving, light passes out of the plate and brings in this way only these markings to glow. See also optical fiber and backlight.
Floodlighting systems consist of multiple lights with reflectors for directional light emission. The lights are mounted in groups on poles or roof constructions to illuminate the area to be illuminated as uniformly as possible.
Depending on the type of lighting ( light play at sporting events, lighting for television broadcasts, illumination of container terminals, etc.) different illumination levels in lux are given at the bottom of this. In television broadcasts and high requirements for light color and color stability of the bulbs used in the lights (lamps) are provided. On the other hand are moving goods or the highway lighting more energy efficiency and great maintenance cycles in the foreground. Accordingly, in stadiums or at TV events metal halide lamps and mercury vapor lamps, however, the most efficient and longer-lasting sodium vapor high pressure lamps are used in the transport center and storage and handling sites.
Typical electrical performance of the lights used 400 to 3500 watts.
Incandescent lamps are used because of their low profitability rarely for floodlighting.
Floodlight for sports facilities
The DIN EN 12193 for sports lighting sorted floodlights in three lighting classes that range for sporting activities in the leisure sector through to international competition. For professional sporting events usually separate specifications of the DIN requirements also apply. Decisive here is the adaptation to the demands of TV broadcasts, arise. While a municipal football and training ground commonly required only to have a flood of light from the illumination class III with at least 75 lux - depending on the specifications of the respective national association, more or less - from the local to regional league game operation 200 lux required (Lighting Class II). The national to international Match operation already requires an installation of the lighting class I with 500 lux The values of these categories cover here in football still largely with those for hockey, tennis and more often exerted Sports - overlaps but only partially, because the definition of Lighting Class I in a soccer game with the already operating within the guidelines of the DFB from the 4th league. In professional football, the 1st or 2nd league turn the Requirements issued by the DFL is taken into account. For the TV -driven lighting by UEFA and FIFA standards the higher classes IV and V shall apply a differentiated list of typical values.
At the European and global levels of football, so the control of the UEFA and FIFA, will gradually sought after standardizing the requirements. UEFA shall, depending on the competition still different requirements, meanwhile the 2,000 lux but have established themselves as magnitude, with a stadium is adequately equipped. At the FIFA since 2007, a new directive requiring for games under auspices of the World Association of at least 2,400 lux is true - such a facility can be constructed skewed to 2,400 Lux radiate towards the main camera, and only 2,000 in the opposite direction. There is even the value of 2,500 lux in the room.
A calculation and measurement height is used to achieve the required uniformity of the illumination of a field of play. All 5 x 5 m is set a calculation point. To confirm the illuminance (symbol E) but only every 10 x 10 m is measured. The width of 68 m resulting 8 measuring points in the length of 105 m 11 points ( 8x11 = 88 measuring points). The mean is the average illuminance; as a whole, an illumination value obtained by, for example, 800 lux, that is an average of all measured points.
As light pollution or light pollution, the level of light is known, the (eg houses) seems to neighboring areas. If this limit is exceeded, threatened by the construction supervision denial of construction or operating license. Evaluation criteria here are the room brightening (illuminance on a window font ) and glare (contrast between the density of the light and the ambient light). Light pollution can hide people directly, meet as stray light or facades, and this area is looked at very critically, pose a hazard to air and road transport. The tolerance values for the brightening of the immission there are particularly low, where it is among other things to help hospitals, nursing facilities or pure residential areas. The emissions are relevant for the exam as soon as light sources are switched several times a week for more than an hour each (except for public street lighting). Thus, large stadiums, which are not always open and only two weekly floodlit in both normal, generally less affected than municipal systems with high year-round use intensity in the evenings. In the case of the large new stadiums without floodlight masts also remains the most of the light in the interior.
Horizontal / vertical illuminance
In order to present a sports event optimally, it is not enough to illuminate the action area horizontal well. The term " vertical illuminance " is called essentially in connection with television broadcasts. The lighting design is the light which require the cameras to make the players from the top to the bottom of the TV visible. This is not the case if the vertical light is too weak in the direction of each camera. Therefore, this illumination is much more important than the horizontal light at TV broadcasts.
Glare and lighting produced by the high contrast disturb athletes and spectators. These come about by excessively low or unfavorable in sight positioned light points. To describe such effects and to control the GR value ( Glare Rating ) is determined. The scale ranges from 10 ( not disturbing at all ) to 90 ( unbearable ). On a pitch of the GR- 50 is the cardinal value of tolerance.
The illuminance of each plant can be claimed by the light pollution, and aging of the lamps fail with time. Appropriate maintenance (eg cleaning of lamps and lamp replacement ) or the maintenance factor (WF ), which results from the lamp maintenance factor ( LaWF ) and the luminaire maintenance factor (LWF ) results, are an integral part of the lighting design. When floodlight, one starts from a maintenance factor of about 0.7.
History and applications
An early flood light was the limelight in the theater, which illuminated the actors from below, and in the 19th century demonstrated the newest and brightest lighting technology.
The first football game under the lights was held in Bramall Lane in Sheffield on October 14, 1878 in front of about 20,000 paid and 6,000 turned crept in the darkness viewers. John Tasker popped the playing field with four arc lights from lighthouses and two portable steam-powered generators in bright light with a total of 8,000 candlepower. As a non - electric alternative, there was the 1888, introduced in Manchester by Messrs. AC Wells & Co. " Wells Light", a petroleum burner similar to a blowtorch with up to 2,000 or 3,000 candlepower, which were also used in industry and construction. Both methods were considered unsafe, and so the Football League banished these facilities started her 1888/89 season. The next match of the Football League under floodlights found again until February 22, 1956 performed at Fratton Park. Outside the league since the early 1950s found games held under floodlights.
The so-called "Dragonfly Shadow ", the throwing football players in night games, are caused by the illumination of the four corners of the court. With the modernization of Premiership football stadiums, the stands were covered and integrates the headlights around the pitch in the roof structure, so these shadows disappeared.
Since the late 1980s, also skiing under floodlights spread. Here, parts of a ski lift or the associated Skihanges be broadcast with headlights so that the inherent obstacles are sufficiently visible.
Older floodlight systems are usually on lattice towers, but later mounted on steel tube or concrete poles.
A special feature are also the former to mention in relation to the station size oversized floodlights of the then frontier stations of the GDR on the inner German border. Their purpose was not so much required at night for the actual railway operating lighting, but mainly the monitoring of the border to prevent the escape from East Germany.