Foie gras ( ˌ fwɑ ː ː ɡrɑ, French for fat liver ') foie gras, goose foie gras or goose foie gras is a culinary specialty, which is obtained from the livers of five to six months old geese or ducks. From the liver pâté de foie gras, the ( foie gras ) is produced.
The fatty livers caused by a particular form of mast ( gavage ), the noodles or plugs, in which the animals are force-fed in the last 21 to 28 days. Around three to four times per day, a mash is made from 95 percent corn and 5 percent lard pumped into the stomach of the animals by means of a tube. Thus, the livers weigh instead of the usual 300 grams at slaughter from 1000 to 2000 grams, and the fat content varies 31-51 percent. Due to the fatty degeneration of the liver, there is a strong deposition of triglycerides, in return, the proportion of phospholipids from. However, the content of cholesterol is not increased by the stopper.
As early as 2500 BC, the fatty liver of birds in Egypt was estimated as a delicacy. About this time also began the practice to over-feed geese ( to stuff ) and thereby produce fatty livers. Pliny the Elder wrote about it, and by the Roman Empire, the technique spread to France, the foie is now considered the " home country " grass.
Approx. 75 percent of world production (2008: 26,500 tonnes), of which 96 percent duck liver (the rest of geese ), and 98 percent of the processing will take place in France. The industry has about 30,000 employees, of whom 90 per cent in the Perigord region and in Alsace work. Behind France, Hungary with 2,600 tons and 2,000 tons of Bulgaria with the most important producers.
Main outside France is Spain with an annual 801 tons, in fifth place is Germany with 121 tonnes ( 2004).
This mast form is now regarded in many countries as animal cruelty and there is forbidden by the Animal Welfare Act or other laws, such as Argentina, Denmark, Germany, Finland, Great Britain, Ireland, Israel ( since 2005), Italy ( since 2004), Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Poland, Sweden, the Czech Republic and Switzerland. Import and sale but are allowed to continue, for example in the EU.
Foie gras 2005 was declared by the French National Assembly in addition to the Agriculture Act for national and gastronomic heritage and is thus exempt from French animal protection laws.
By 14 May 2008, the sale of foie gras in Chicago was forbidden, which was considered unique in the world.
On the General Food and Beverage Exhibition ( Anuga ) in Cologne, which is considered the world's largest trade fair for the food industry and food industry, in 2011 the product foie was grass deleted from the list of goods the fair, but this does not show ban.
2004 prohibiting the production and sale of the liver of stuffed animals, also the trade in feathers and other products of stuffed geese and ducks was decided in California. It entered into force on 1 July 2012.