Fold mountains are formed when at least two plates of the Earth's crust collide, resulting in that the crust in the appropriate place, so to speak, the " crumple zone", folded up and pressed under enormous pressure ( → orogeny ).
The pressure creates a single mountain range or even a whole series of roughly parallel mountain ranges, which is why it is also called cordillera. These mountain ranges are often arcuate in map image.
Fold mountains are the most common form of high mountain on Earth. In contrast, fracture Scholl mountains often reach only low mountain heights. Many European Central Mountains are breaking Scholl mountains, at the increase of plaice along the fracture zones as a whole or cut without it comes to folding. However, the rocks of this fraction Scholl mountains may have already passed through a wrinkle orogeny in the geological past and are therefore folded anyway. This is, for example, the resin or the Rhenish Slate Mountains the case. Break Scholl mountains more often than not long mountain range but have in the card image rather roundish or oval shape.
Except on earth folded mountains can also occur on other planets, if there is possible plate tectonics. This requires a minimum size of the celestial body (depending on the composition of a few thousand kilometers in diameter ), a solid crust on a deformable sheath or core, and probably liquid water. So far, Earth is the only planet of the plate tectonics is known. The Earth's moon could not develop fold mountains because of its early cold. The Edge Mountains some Mare, have originated from the impact of large asteroids.
Significant fold mountains
- Hindu Kush
- Southern Alps
- Caucasus ( border mountains to Asia)
- Northern Rocky Mountains ( the central and southern Rocky Mountains are more of a break Scholl Mountains)
- Sierra Madre Occidental
- Sierra Madre Oriental