Fontainebleau [ fõtɛnblo ] (formerly: fontaine belle eau ) is a French town with 14,708 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2011) in the Ile- de -France region. It is 55 km south of Paris and is the capital of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau in Seine- et- Marne.
The landscape designation " Gâtinais français " was used in former times for the region around Fontainebleau. In July 1313, the marriage between Joan of Burgundy and Philip of Valois took place there, later known as Philip VI. Became King of France.
On October 18, 1752 premiere of the opera Le Devin du village of Jean -Jacques Rousseau took place. 1753 was Daphnis et Eglé, a heroic work of Rameau. On 23 October 1754, the opera Anacréon of Jean- Philippe Rameau was premiered. The colony of New Orleans was in 1762 as part of the secret agreement of Fontainebleau in Spain, which was confirmed in the Treaty of Paris in 1763. From 1806 to 1814 held Napoleon I. Pope Pius VII prisoner at Fontainebleau.
On October 27, 1807 Spain had to concede in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the French army march through rights to Portugal. The occasion was the refusal of the Portuguese King John VI. , Attack after Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar England. Portugal was occupied in the sequence and deposed the House of Braganza.
1810, the Napoleonic decree of Fontainebleau was adopted as one of the follow-up documents of the Berlin Decree. The new Treaty of Fontainebleau in 1814 closed. Napoleon abdicated and the reign of the Bourbons were restored.
In 1948 was founded here in the context of an international conference, the IUCN.
From August 1953 to April 1967 was the seat of the Fontainebleau NATO Headquarters Allied Forces Central Europe ( AFCENT ). Near the town, in the Camp Guynemer, was the headquarters of Allied Air Forces Central Europe ( AAFCE ). After the withdrawal of France from the military integration of NATO in 1966 was moved to AFCENT Brunssum in the Netherlands, the AAFCE resolved until 1974.
1984, a meeting of the European Council was held in Fontainebleau, whose decisions the euro sclerosis ended. The UK rebate ended the years simmering financial dispute within the European Community; two by the summit to life gerufende Committees (Ad Hoc Committee on Institutional Affairs, also called Dooge Committee, and the Committee on the " Europe for citizens ", even Adonino Committee) finally led to the adoption of the Single European Act, the first amendment of the Treaties of Rome. The meeting then considered a milestone in European integration.
Twin towns of Fontainebleau are London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in England and Constance. A ship of the ferry Konstanz - Meersburg contributes therefore the name of the sister city (MF Fontainebleau ). In addition, Fontainebleau is a member of the Federation of European cities Napoleon.
Geography and Transportation
The place had from 1896 to 1953 a tram. This was designed as a catenary system in the period 15 July 1901 to 1913.
- Fontainebleau Castle, built in the 16th century, royal residence since Francis I with major Renaissance features ( School of Fontainebleau ); Site of the first abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte
- Notre- Dame-de- Barbeau ( Barbeau Monastery ), founded by and burial of Louis VII
- Forest of Fontainebleau, a source of inspiration for, founded by Theodore Rousseau painting of Paysage intimate genus (see also composite artist Barbizon school on site); Artists colony Grez -sur -Loing ( neighboring town, such as Frederick Delius ); for individual works of Paul Cézanne the formation is suspected here; Verdi (possibly Schiller) placed the first act of the opera Don Carlos ( Verdi) to this place, possibly as a nod to Philip VI. (of Valois ) and Johanna of Burgundy and son John II and his wife Jutta of Luxembourg; the sandstone blocks in the forest of Fontainebleau are among the oldest and most famous bouldering areas in Europe
Sons and daughters of the town
- Anne -Marie Barat, organist
- Elizabeth of Valois, daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de 'Medici
- Francis II, King of France
- Jean -Baptiste Gaston, Duke of Orléans, Duke of multiple areas
- Joan of Burgundy, daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy
- Louis of France, Le Grand Dauphin
Born and deceased ( in chronological order )
- Philip VI. (* 1293 ), King of France
- Philip IV (France ) (* 1268, † November 29, 1314 ), King of France
- Francis II ( born January 19, 1544), King of France
- Henry III. (* September 19, 1551 ), King of France
- Nicolò dell'Abbate († 1571), Italian painter
- Louis XIII. ( Born September 27, 1601), King of France
- Élisabeth de Bourbon ( born November 22, 1602), Princess of France, later Queen Isabella of Spain
- Jean -Baptiste Gaston, Duke of Orléans ( born April 25, 1608), Duke of different areas
- Giovanni Monaldeschi († November 10, 1657 ), Marquis, an employee of the Swedish Queen Christina
- Louis of France, Le Grand Dauphin ( born 1 November 1661), Prince and heir to the throne
- Louis II de Bourbon, Prince of Condé († December 11, 1686 ), commander and member of the royal family
- Louis -François de Boufflers († August 20, 1711 ), French field marshal
- Katherine Mansfield ( † January 9, 1923 ), New Zealand - British writer
- Patrick Devedjian ( born August 26, 1944), politician and lawyer
- Antoine Richard ( born September 8, 1960), Athlete
- Cyril Despres (born 24 January 1974), enduro racer
- Cyrille Aimée (born 10 August 1984), jazz singer
- Florian Carvalho (born 9 March 1989), Athlete
- Antoine Caron (1521-1599), painter, living in 1540, who later became court painter to Catherine of Medici
- Louise de La Vallière (1644-1710), mistress and mother, lived in the castle
- Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891), German - Russian, American writer later
- Sophus Lie (1842-1899), Norwegian mathematician, researcher of Lie groups was 1870/71 detained at the place because he was mistaken for a spy
- Patricia Highsmith (1921-1995), novelist, lived temporarily in the region
- Louis Malle, director, spent some time at the boarding school in 1944 " Petit Collège " in Avon. There, during the German occupation of the deadly " betrayal " of the leitmotif in Goodbye, children were later occurred.
- Fontainebleau bouldering area (see bouldering )
- INSEAD ( Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires )
- École d'application de l' artillery et du genie, Military School
- American Conservatory Summer Academy for Art and Architecture in the castle
- Stage start and finish of the 1967 Tour de France
- Racing Club du Pays de Fontainebleau, one between the mid- 1950s and 1980s, among other names of successful football club