Foshan (Chinese佛山 市, Pinyin shì Foshan, Buddha Mountain ', rarely also: Fatshan Cantonese ) is a prefecture -level city in Guangdong Province, China. It is located in the Pearl River Delta, only about 20 miles from Guangdong city of Guangzhou.
The surface shape of Foshan is flat. The climate is subtropical; the average temperature is 12.8 ° January C, the average temperature of 27.3 ° C in July, with peak values can be achieved at 40 ° C in summer. The annual rainfall is about 1630 mm. The Pearl River flows at some distance past the city of Foshan and forms most of the border to Guangzhou, the city area is, however, affected the south of Dongping channel. The urban area extends from 22 ° 38 'N, 112 ° 22 ' E to 23 ° 34 'N, 113 ° 23 ' E.
Information on the population of the city of Foshan vary greatly. There are also many migrant workers who are legally bound by the hukou system in their home, and are therefore not officially reported in the cities.
On January 21, 1951 Foshan was declared a city. In 1958 the Government District of Foshan, with responsibility for Foshan City, Jianmen, and Shiqi Zhongshan, a total of 13 counties. It was in 1970 extended to 14 counties.
Since June 6, 1983 the administrative county of the state of a prefecture-level city was awarded. The administrative region in 1985 transferred - trade zone in the open " Pearl River Delta ". Since then, Foshan became an industrial city with individual municipalities, including the City Chancheng District, which accounted for the former city of Foshan and is still regarded as the center of Foshan. On December 8, 2002, he was released and administratively with the also defunct city district Cheng (城区) combines the new Chancheng District.
During the Qing Dynasty, Foshan had a great significance for China's foreign trade. Even today, Foshan is a major commercial and industrial center. It dominates the light industry; most important products that are produced are textiles, ceramics, household appliances, electronic products, leather products, printing products, building materials, pharmaceuticals and foods. The former urban district Shiwan (石湾 区) is one of the most important sites for the production of ceramics in China. More recently, a majority of the production in the neighboring municipality Nanzhuang (南庄镇) was relocated. The ceramic industry contributes significantly to the high air pollution from Foshan.
Especially the municipalities Nanhai and Shunde are economically very well developed and are among the richest areas in Guangdong.
Foshan's history dates back to the 7th century. The oldest preserved cultural monument is the so -called ancestral temple (祖庙) in the actual city center Chancheng, the Beidi, the dedicated " dark warrior ", the Daoist god of the north and ruler of the waters, who is also the patron of Wundang fighters. The term " Ancestral Temple " means that it is the oldest temple, the ancestor of all the temples of the city. It was founded during the Sung Dynstie around the year 1080 as the Temple of metal fabricators and renewed after a fire in the 14th century. The post-1949 made use of as a municipal museum temple escaped destruction during the Cultural Revolution of the Red Guards from nearby Canton, as the population of Foshan protective delivered a long speech battle in front of him and gathered the Red Guards. Together with the also located in the central Chancheng District Nanfeng Kiln from the Zhengde era (1506-1521), he is now on the list of monuments of the People's Republic of China.
As important and worth seeing is also Liang's Garden (梁园), which is one of the most important Chinese gardens from the Qing Dynasty. Liang, a senior politician of his time, was built at that time a splendid residence. After the fall of the dynasty he and his family were evicted and the building fell into disrepair. Only in modern times a very pleasant residence garden was created by renovation, which is visited by honeymooners like for creating wedding photos. In addition to an art exhibition of paintings there are also historical information on the history of the family and of the still living, some famous, scattered throughout the world Liang's descendants in the rooms of the residence.
In the region around the traditional South China Foshan Kung Fu martial arts style of Wing Chun was created in the early 19th century, which is still actively practiced. The ancestors of Bruce Lee come from the prefecture Foshan, namely from Shunde. Some outstanding foreign fighters have learned their art here, and even today come delegations to Foshan.
The traditional southern Chinese dragon dance and the Cantonese opera originated in Foshan.
Historical People from Foshan
To significant people from the history of Foshan 's include: Wong Fei Hung, Pan Yushu Li Guanghai, Liu Chuan, Chen Tiejun, Jian Brothers, Wu Qin, Li Wenmao, Chen Qiyuan, Huang Shaoqiang, Kang Youwei, Zhan Tianyou, He Xiangning, Wenxu Lun, Yip Man. English description of the persons can also be found here.
The prefecture-level city of Foshan is made up of five boroughs together (counting from 2010):
- Chancheng District (禅城 区): 154 km ², 1,101,077 inhabitants; .
- City Nanhai District (南海 区): 1074 km ², 2,588,844 inhabitants; .
- City Shunde District (顺德 区): 806 km ², 2,461,701 inhabitants; .
- City Sanshui District (三水 区): 874 km ², 622 645 Ew, .
- City Gaoming District (高明 区): 960 km ², 420 044 Ew ..
The Chancheng District (禅城 区) includes the whole urban area of Foshan and a few rural areas; He is commonly referred to as the center.
The Chancheng District is north, west and east of Nanhai surrounded, in the south it borders Shunde. Chancheng itself is further divided into eight Street district and a large community. In addition to the range of the ancestral temple " Zumiao " and Shiwan Chancheng is worth mentioning in the greater community Nanzhuang (南庄镇).
Foshan is located on the railway line from Guangzhou to the west by Maoming. In addition, the city is located in the dense motorway and expressway belt of the city of Guangzhou.
In the city there are, as in many Chinese cities, a traffic problem which is motivated by the increasing demand for mobility and the rapidly growing motorization of the population. Foshan is to solve the traffic problems on public transport. In September 2008, the first transport network of China was established with German advice. In time for the 16th Asian Games ( 12 to 27 November 2010) in Canton (Guangzhou ), the first subway line was opened with a length of 20.4 km in 2010, making Foshan the tenth city in the area actual people's Republic of China with a subway system. The " Guangfo " line of the " FMetro " is directly connected to the Guangzhou Metro network, making it the first Chinese subway line that connects two major cities. The second section of the line to be completed by the end of 2013. Two other lines are under construction or in planning, and in the final stage the " FMetro " network in the area of Foshan intended to include eight routes.
At the Asian Games in 2010 and the ring road to relieve the inner-city streets to Foshan around had been completed.
Worldwide sensation was caused the death of two -year-old Yueyue in October 2011, which was run over by two vehicles in Foshan and died due to non-assistance benefits by at least 18 passers-by. Her death triggered a nationwide debate about morality and selfishness.
1991 Foshan was one of the venues for the first World Cup of women. In addition to four preliminary round games, a quarter-final stage took place in New Plaza.