Frank Lloyd Wright
Wright grew up in rural Wisconsin and studied from 1885 at the University of Wisconsin, this left but not finish the 1887 -. Honorary doctorate by the University, he received in 1955 Subsequently, he joined the architectural firm of Joseph Lyman Silsbee in Chicago one, left the company but in the same year to work in the office of Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. In 1893 he founded his own company in his new home Oak Park, a suburb of Chicago. Until 1901 he had worked about 50 projects. Until about 1910 he created primarily so-called Prairie Houses. His staff included, among others, Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin whose future wife.
The close contact with the landscape of his home state Wisconsin was central in his later work: the seamless integration as possible of the building into the landscape is one of the motives of his immense creativity. This design philosophy is probably best in Wright's most famous work, which was built for Edgar J. Kaufmann at a small waterfall villa Fallingwater, to advantage. Other well-known designs are combined with Hilla Rebay realized Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York and the administration building for the Johnson Wax Company.
But actually it was Frank Lloyd Wright after centuries of cultural America's dependence from the old continent is to establish an independent architecture of the new continent. His so-called Prairie Houses should be an expression of the American spirit of democracy, pioneering spirit and cohesion. The most important element was the fire pit as a meeting place for the community, around which the building is developed. Harmoniously with the whole embeds into the surrounding countryside.
Wright was one of the first architects who used the concept of " organic architecture ". He was doing this to an organic connection of architecture with the various elements of art, nature and human life areas, less in the biological sense.
Under the name Taliesin Wright founded several " studios " in the middle of the American prairie, which should serve as platforms for the development of new, independent American architecture. Wright's office was an attraction for young architects from around the world who occasionally worked with him and his style was also developed later in their home countries, as well as on the old continent. An example is Werner Max Moser.
In his book When democracy builds ( German 1950) Frank Lloyd Wright created a kind of utopian master plan for the civilization of the 20th century.
" Usonien " ( Usonian ) calls Wright his visionary America. It consists of a new urban form devised by him: Broadacre City ( size city). Only the people here might enjoy " true individuality " ( and not " rugged individuality " = egoism ) in a true holistic democracy. Characteristic of this vision are the values of the Declaration of Independence. Since all potential leaders (politicians, philosophers, artists, ...) have failed, Usonien is led by an architect. The government takes only true administrative tasks.
Friendship and fascination felt Wright for the dazzling Caucasian Georges I. Gurdjieff esoteric, one already in his time controversial charismatic teacher of wisdom, whom he met on his third wife Olgivanna, who had been a student of Gurdjieff in the 20s.
Wright worked alongside his work as an architect and writer as art dealers and collectors. Already in his first trip to Japan in 1905, he acquired a large stock of woodcuts of the Ukiyo -e genre, which he used to part of setting up your own property, on the other hand for the profitable resale. With skill he understood it after the establishment of the projected buildings he that the builders to also bought matching objects of art. At times, the proceeds from the art market were higher than from the architectural activities.
Wright's principles of organic architecture
After preparation of ( Please grudge ) represent the principles of Wright's organic architecture establishes the basic connections between it and other modernist architects.
According to these principles, oriented Wright's architecture:
- Functionalism (see sculptor Horatio Greenough and architect Louis Sullivan )
- Technology (eg, Larkin Building, 1903, air conditioning )
- Continuous development of architectural forms
Its principles of organic architecture did not remain static, and usually gradually changed.
William H. Winslow House (1893 )
Robie House (1908 )
Imperial Hotel (1916 )
Fallingwater (1937 )
V. C. Morris Gift Shop ( 1948)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum ( 1956)
Price Tower (1956 )
Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church ( 1959)