Frankenia salina

Frankenia is the only plant genus of the family of Frankeniaceae within the order of clove -like ( Caryophyllales ). Some authors include three other genera of the family. They are closely related to the family of tamarisk ( Tamaricaceae ), but opposite leaves and sepals free, in contrast to this genus / family. Frankenia come in drylands ( arid ) in warm zones almost worldwide before, many species are salt tolerant.

  • 2.1 Kinds (selection)
  • 3.1 Notes and references


Habit and foliage leaves

Frankenia species grow as small shrubs or perennial or rarely annual herbaceous plants. They are mostly halophytes and xerophytes. The Siebröhrenplastiden are S-type.

Their leaves are arranged on opposite sides. The mostly small, scale-like ( erikoiden ) or simple leaves may be stalked and are often grown together. The leaf margin is smooth. On leaves salt glands are present. There are no stipules present.

Inflorescences and flowers

The flowers are borne singly or with bracts in terminal or pendent zymösen inflorescences. The usually hermaphroditic, radial symmetry flowers are four to siebenzählig. The long-lasting sepals are fused together into a folded tube. The mostly free petals are usually nailed long with a scale at the base of the nail. The petals are usually white to pink or rare red to purple. There are usually two circles, each with three stamens present, sometimes there are up to 24 stamens. The often flattened stamens are of unequal length and short fused more than at its base. The three-cell pollen grains usually have three or six, rarely two or four apertures and are COLPAT or rugat. Most three (rarely two or four) carpels are fused to a constant above, unilocular ovary. The ovary contains parietal placentation 12 to 100 anatrope, bitegmische, pseudocrassinucellate ovules. The stylus is usually branched. Pollination is by insects ( entomophily ).

Fruit and seeds

The enveloped by the calyx capsule fruits jump on to longitudinal flaps and contain many seeds. The small, ovoid to cylindrical seeds contain plenty of starchy endosperm and a straight embryo.

Ingredients and sets of chromosomes

There may be cyanidin, and ellagic acid of flavonols quercetin and / or kaempferol. The basic chromosome number is x = 10, 15

Systematics and distribution

Within the order of Caryophyllales Frankeniaceae are most closely related to the occurring in Eurasia and Africa Tamaricaceae. Previously, both families were the order of the Violales Lindl. provided. The Frankeniaceae with Tamaricaceae and Plumbaginaceae with Polygonaceae each form sister groups and these two sister groups together form a clade.

The valid according to the priority rule first publication of the family name Frankeniaceae was made in 1817 by Nicaise Augustin Desvaux Dictionnaire raisonné de botanique in, p 188; the publication of A.St. - Hil. was not until 1821 in SF Gray: A Natural Arrangement of British Plants, pp. 623, 633 The Frankeniaceae family contains only one genus Frankenia. The genus name Frankenia was 332erstveröffentlicht 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum, Volume 1, p. The botanical genus name honors the Swedish botanist Johan Franck (1590-1661), Latinized Frankenius. Type species is Frankenia laevis L. Synonyms for Frankenia L. are: . Anthobryum Phil, Beat Sonia Roxb, Franca Me.. ex Adans. , Hypericopsis Boiss., Menetho Raf., Nothria mountain., Streptima Raf ..

The genus Frankenia has an almost worldwide distribution to in sub-tropical to temperate regions. The center of biodiversity is Australia with about 50 species.

Types (selection)

The genus contains about 90 species Frankenia (selection):

  • Frankenia adpressa Summerh.
  • Frankenia ambita Ostenf.
  • Frankenia annua Summerh.
  • Frankenia bracteata Turcz.
  • Frankenia cinerea A.DC.
  • Frankenia conferta Diels
  • Frankenia confusa Summerh.
  • Frankenia connata Sprague
  • Frankenia cordata J.M.Black
  • Frankenia crispa J.M.Black
  • Frankenia cupularis Summerh.
  • Frankenia densa Summerh.
  • Frankenia desertorum Summerh.
  • Frankenia drummondii Benth.
  • Frankenia eremophila Summerh.
  • Frankenia ericifolia C.Sm. ex DC.
  • Frankenia fecunda Summerh.
  • Frankenia foliosa J.M.Black
  • Frankenia Georgei Diels
  • Frankenia glomerata Turcz.
  • Frankenia grandifolia Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Frankenia hispidula Summerh.
  • Frankenia interioris Ostenf.
  • Frankenia johnstonii Correll
  • Frankenia juniperoides ( Jerome, ) M.N.Correa
  • Frankenia laevis L.
  • Frankenia latior Sprague & Summerh.
  • Frankenia laxiflora Summerh.
  • Frankenia magnifica Summerh.
  • Frankenia muscosa J.M.Black
  • Frankenia orthotricha ( J.M.Black ) J.M.Black
  • Frankenia parvula Turcz.
  • Frankenia pauciflora DC.
  • Frankenia plicata Melville
  • Frankenia pseudoflabellata Summerh.
  • Seeheide ( Frankenia pulverulenta L.): She grew from 1890 to 1904 in the Port of Hamburg.
  • Frankenia pulverulenta L.: She comes into the Chinese provinces of Gansu ( Minqin ), western Nei Mongol ( Ejin Qi ), Xinjiang ( Xinyuan ) and in Mongolia, Russia, Turkmenistan, northern and southern Africa, central and south-western Asia and southern Europe, of course, before. In Australia and in the New World it is a neophyte.
  • Frankenia punctata Turcz.
  • Frankenia salina ( Molina ) I.M.Johnst.
  • Frankenia scabra Lindl.
  • Frankenia serpyllifolia Lindl.
  • Frankenia sessilis Summerh.
  • Frankenia setosa W.Fitzg.
  • Frankenia stuartii Summerh.
  • Frankenia subteres Summerh.
  • Frankenia tetrapetala Labill.
  • Frankenia uncinata Sprague & Summerh.


  • The Frankeniaceae in APWebsite family. (Sections systematics and description)
  • The Frankeniaceae at DELTA by L. Watson & MJ Dallwitz family. ( Description section )
  • Dennis I. Morris: Frankeniaceae in the Flora of Tasmania Online. PDF, 2009 (Section Description )
  • J. Nasir Yasin: Frankeniaceae in the Flora of Pakistan, Volume 7, 1971: Online at of the Missouri Botanical Garden. ( Description section )
  • Qiner Yang & Molly Whalen: Frankeniaceae, pp. 57 - text Registered as printed work, In: Wu Zheng -yi, Peter H. Raven & Deyuan Hong (eds.): Flora of China, Volume 13 - Clusiaceae through Araliaceae, Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2007. ISBN 978-1-930723-59-7 (Sections Description and dissemination )