Frankfurt Airport long-distance station
- High-speed line Cologne-Rhine/Main (km 169.3 )
Opened in 1999, the railway station Frankfurt Airport long-distance station is the largest airport terminal in Germany with around 23,000 daily passengers. He was named in the north of Frankfurt airport as a complement to the existing station, now Frankfurt (Main ) Airport Regional Station, built. The need for a second station at the airport resulted from the construction of the Commissioned in 2002, high-speed line Cologne-Rhine/Main.
Daily hold 210 long-distance trains at the station, of which 185 ICEs. He was the only pure remote station of the Deutsche Bahn at its opening. He is next to the Limburg Süd station is one of two railway stations in Germany, in the schedule solely long-distance trains (as of 2013).
2012 held daily 174 high-speed trains in the station and transported a total of more than 5.6 million passengers.
Configuration and location
The station is located between the Frankfurt motorway interchange in the east tunnel that connects Frankfurt ( Main ) Hauptbahnhof Mannheim and manufactures, and the tunnel Kelsterbacher clasp in the west, the beginning of the high-speed section of the new line.
The 660 meters long and up to 55 meter wide station building was designed by architects BRT ( Bothe, Richter, Teherani ). After nearly four years of construction, it was opened in 1999. The entire station is glazed on the outside and looks open. The top section of 12.5 meters in height forms a 30 -inch-thick reinforced concrete slab of approximately 34,000 square meters of floor space. The plate is located on steel longitudinal girders, which transfer their loads to 4.5 meters high trusses. These span the railway station in the transverse direction with a maximum span of about 50 meters and are located at a distance of 15 meters. The truss is statically configured for a subsequent, up to eight-story buildings. The maximum carrying capacity of the reinforced concrete slab (E3, B55 ) is 700 kilograms per square meter.
Until the beginning of 2007 was the railway station in the middle of building only a large opening with a biaxially curved glass dome. This has a maximum height of 15 meters and a length of 135 meters and a width of 40 meters.
The station has two platforms as a means towards the platform with two tracks. The tracks are numbered "Remote 4" to "Remote 7", so close to the numbers 1 to 3 of the existing regional station since 1972 on. Schedule of track 6 and 7 trains to Mainz and Cologne, from track 4 and 5 toward the main or south station or on the Riedbahn towards Mannheim. In contrast to the regional station of the remote station is scheduled to be approached only by long-distance trains.
The train station is 200 meters from Terminal 1, between the Federal Highway 3 and runs parallel to national road 43 to connect the station building to the terminal 1, a 200 meters long and up to 80 meters wide walkway was built. This takes on sidewalks and walkways, check- in counters, baggage screening and various shops.
On the mezzanine, between the platform and the distribution level, there are, among others, a DB lounge for first-class travelers and frequent riders. This can also be reached by elevator directly from the platform 6/7.
1996 traveled from factory daily 66,500 passengers about 8,200 ( 12.3 percent ) with the long-distance transport to the airport on; which in turn took 4,000 mass transit between Frankfurt Central Station and Frankfurt Airport. The remaining passengers were traveling especially by car to ( 44,200, 66.5 %), in addition also with buses and local trains ( together 10,300, 15.5 %) and coaches ( 3.800, 5.7%).
The planned in the 1970s, new Cologne - great- Gerau should, in their rechtsrheinischen variant, southeast stops next to the airport and motorway, 3 cross in the area of Wiesbaden Cross. In its left-bank variation, a large-scale tour of Wiesbaden and Mainz was provided. Frankfurt should be connected in two variants of connecting curves to existing routes. The new railway line project in 1978 discarded and in the 1980s in a modified form as new Cologne-Rhine/Main line again.
As part of the planning of the new line Cologne-Rhine/Main a solution was sought to link the long-distance transport route to the airport. Originally, the regional station should be extended to a fourth track within the new lines project. Despite the high cost of the procedure in the existing building is expected that the capacity would not be sufficient in the medium term. Other considerations before looked to build an additional station below the existing building. After a feasibility study had come to a positive result, the decision was against this variant due to high costs. The Board of Directors of the former Federal Railroad spoke out in April 1990 for the construction of an above ground line station from. With sufficient traffic demand, the new station should also serve the transport from the south.
Tested then was the construction of a new railway station between A 3 and B 43 for long-distance and, if economically justifiable and by demand for regional traffic towards Mannheim. Even for the large-scale connectivity of the airport railway station, on the new line two variants were examined. Was tested - in addition to the realized route along the A 3 via Moenchhof - a route on the southern outskirts Kelsterbachs with swinging next to the ( running north ) route Mainz- Frankfurt Kelsterbach. A connection with the Mainz- Frankfurt route was provided in both cases. The Federal Railroad downgraded the (unrealized ) as an alternative for operating a favorable settlement. For the (realized ) mönchhof variant spoke against less stress to Kelsterbach and a higher environmental impact. The construction of connecting curves between the new building and the Mainz track the operational disadvantages of realized mönchhof variant could be mitigated.
The plan approval procedure for the airport train station and the section at the Frankfurter Kreuz ( collectively referred to as Section 36 ) was introduced as the first of some 50 planning approval process of the new line in April 1994.
After planning as of December 1997, there were 2010 7 lines of long distance traffic and 144 train stops per day at the train station expected, plus additional features to cover peak demand. The number of persons arriving with the long-distance railway passenger should rise from 12.3 percent in 1996 to 22.4 per cent ( 22,400 ) in 2010, the rate of persons arriving by buses and commuter trains passengers, however, from 15.5 to 14.8 % go back. In the remote station about 34,000 passengers were expected for the year 2010. Of these, about 22,000 travelers who have directly to do with the airport ( passengers, employees, visitors, customers ), the other about 12,000 travelers should use the station only to entry and exit. The under 21 converted Frankfurt Frankfurt Central Station, however, should approximately 60,000 weekday passenger count.
The project was implemented jointly by the German railway and airport AG. The construction work in the stretch began in December 1995. In September 1996, the German railway awarded the first contracts for the construction of the mainline station, including the route in the station area, the transfer area and the passenger terminal. The top plate of the station was there already earmarked for a residential development, which was not yet decided on a specific use.
The groundbreaking ceremony took place on 1 October 1997. Among the guests were Minister of Transport Wissmann, the Hessian Minister Eichel, the Frankfurt Lord Mayor Petra Roth, Deutsche Bahn CEO Johannes Ludewig and the chairman of the airport company FAG, Wilhelm Bender. The foundation, which was incorporated into the foundations of a steel beam, contains a set of coins from 1997, three Frankfurt daily newspapers and a document the groundbreaking ceremony.
Approximately 300 employees were employed on the site. The construction work should (as of mid-1999 ) will be completed in May 2000. To start 1999, the transition was especially building not yet completed.
For the construction (including two kilometers of the route) 400,000 m³ of soil were excavated and built 100,000 cubic meters of concrete and 2.5 km of bored piles.
As a builder, the German Bahn AG acted.
Costs and financing
Construction costs amounted to 225 million euros, including 44.5 million for the roof construction. The share of federal lies at 97.5 million euros. The airport AG turned this 257 million D- Mark (1998 ) on the check-in terminal. This also includes the cost of the roof included. The construction costs were 30 million D- Mark over the originally planned value. As causes for inflation unforeseen difficulties during construction, a fire and subsequently improved services have been specified.
The Frankfurt Flughafen donated the land and financed the expansion of the entire infrastructure, with the exception of the immediate station area. It fell to costs for the expansion of the terminal and the connection of the station totaling together 170 million D-Mark, for constructive input for the later planned development in the amount of 87 million euros. The cost of the immediate station area of 153 million marks were taken over by the federal government and two-thirds to one-third of the Deutsche Bahn AG.
As the first train wrong end of November 1998, a work train with invited guests from Zeppelinheim train station from the airport train station in the tunnel.
After weeks of trial operation, the symbolic opening on 27 May 1999 was celebrated. Federal Transport Minister Müntefering, Deutsche Bahn CEO Ludewig and FAG CEO Bender and other invited guests drove into the station in an ICE T. Frankfurt's Lord Mayor Petra Roth and the Hessian Minister of Transport Posch attended the ceremony.
The first scheduled train left moderate on 30 May 1999, the InterCity 537 " Moritzburg " at 05:37 clock in the train station a. The German railway calculated first with five million passengers per year. After completing the quick route to Cologne ( 2002), this number should increase to nine million annual passengers. This corresponded to a fourfold increase in the measured previously at the airport - passenger regional station number. A study from the 1990s expected that in 2002, 919,000 passengers arriving by train additional place by car or taxi to the airport and around 1.3 million passengers would arrive instead of short-haul flights to the train to the airport.
From start-up to the train station every two ICE and IC lines were first performed in the one-or two -hourly on the new station. Daily initially served 83 trains the in-service 5:00 to 00:30 clock station. For up not yet completed was the check -in area, in which it had come to a major fire in November 1998 to construction delays.
With the opening of the station, the capacity for long-distance trains quadrupled at the airport, while doubled by the extensive displacement of the long-distance transport in regional train station, the capacity for S -Bahn and regional transport.
The station now plays on leading through Frankfurt Airport Highway, while in 1972, put into operation, three-pronged regional station only receives the regional and S- Bahn services. Between 1985 and 1999, the regional station was served by InterCity and later Intercity-Express network. Only at night, while the train station is closed, run individual long-distance trains today on the local train station. The released with the opening of the mainline station capacities of the regional station allow improved regional and S -Bahn offer. With the early commissioning of the southern section between Raunheimer curve and Frankfurt motorway interchange tunnel -distance trains were able to use the new train station in August 2002, three years before the opening of the new line.
To start the remote station, the proportion of the train arriving ( about today's regional train station ) passengers was 14 percent. In the spring of 2000, approximately 14,000 travelers were counted per day. In the first year of operation took around 9,000 travelers per day the station, in 2008 there were 22,500 daily.
After opening of the building was discussed at times to demolish the glass dome in favor of any further development. For fire safety reasons, this option was discarded. The 14 -million D-Mark dome should be integrated after original plans in the building complex.
The design of the building was awarded in 2003 with a special price of the Renault Traffic Design Award.
Expansion to " The Squaire "
On 1 March 2007 was held under the project name Frankfurt Airrail Center laid the foundation stone for construction of the ceiling slab over the station instead. Meanwhile, the nine-storey complex with over eight acres of office space, 583 hotel rooms, restaurants and retail at construction cost of approximately 1.25 billion euros in was " The Squaire " renamed. The glass dome remains at the center and get connected to the front sides of the foyer of the hotel and the office building. The opening was originally scheduled for fall 2009, but was delayed until early 2011. In spring 2011, the complex was completed.
20 candidates had applied for the development of the remote station 1998. After a prequalification finally seven investor groups had applied for the realization. In March 1999, an international selection committee finally selected two companies for the Entausscheidung: De - Pfa - Real Estate Management ( Wiesbaden) and TERCON real estate project development GmbH ( Munich). A feasibility study saw the opportunity to create 3400-4000 new jobs in the building depending on usage concept.
In the first months of operation, served in 1999 as planned five long-distance lines with 84 trains per day, the new station:
- Hannover- Frankfurt -Stuttgart ( Two -hour clock )
- ( Berlin ) Bielefeld, Dortmund, Essen and Dusseldorf -Cologne- Würzburg -Nürnberg ( Two -hour clock )
- Dresden- Bielefeld, Cologne and Nuremberg -Passau - Austria
- Hamburg–Osnabrück–Münster–Dortmund–Essen–Düsseldorf–Köln–Mannheim–Basel–Schweiz ( Hour)
In the year 2006 timetable took the ICE - Sprinter pair of trains ICE 1110/1111 (Stuttgart - Cologne) for the first time trains at the station without stopping by.
The Roadmap 2007 served, with the exception of the ICE line 45 (which over Wiesbaden wrong Hauptbahnhof), as well as an ICE Sprinter, all seven leading on the new line ICE lines, among other ICE and IC lines, the airport train station.
16 percent of the passengers of the Frankfurt airport travel by ICE to (as of 2009).
A unique feature of the concourse is the air conditioning. At both ends of the station building, a ventilation system was set up. These fans are activated at entrances and exits of trains and serve to keep the interior temperature constant and avoid drafts.
The railway tracks of the station were carried out in contrast to the adjacent Frankfurt Cross tunnel and the high-speed section of the new line, not in slab track, but in conventional ballasted track.
The exit signals Cologne are at kilometer 170.734, direction Mannheim / Frankfurt main station at km 171.219. The station is covered by Entry Signals at km 169.739 or 171.606. Between the western entry and exit signals is a track change with four points (center at km 170.200 ), you can switch between the two on the continuous main tracks. Between the eastern exit signals and 171.606 kilometers between the four tracks each with three changes of track with four points (V- shape). The station is equipped with Ks- signals and is controlled remotely by the CBI Frankfurt airport from the operations center of Frankfurt. On all platform tracks a Linienzugbeeinflussung ( LZB ) is set up.
A special feature of the signaling can result in the entrance to the Frankfurter Kreuz ago, when no track changes are required with respect to the break-in and the platform track. The entrance is in such cases by the fact contradictory signal image Ks 2 with speed indicator Zs 3, code 8, and speed pre- pointers Zs 3v, code 6 ( reduced speed of 80 km / h, slow travel at 60 km / h and expect stop ) signals. Shortly before the start of the platform, the maximum permissible speed for retracting trains by a single speed indicator, which shows the number 6, at 80 km / h to 60 km / h is then reduced. This is to avoid unnecessarily long drive at 60 km / h can be avoided.