Franz Brentano

Franz Clemens Brentano (* January 16, 1838 in the then already resolved Klostermarienberg in Boppard am Rhein, † March 17, 1917 in Zurich ) was a German philosopher, psychologist and founder of the Aktpsychologie.


The Brentano family came originally from Lombardy, but for several generations lived in Germany. Franz Brentano's parents were the writer Christian Brentano and his wife Emilie Brentano. A brother was the economist and social reformer Lujo Brentano. Siblings of the parents were Clemens Brentano and Bettina von Arnim, which are among the most important figures of German Romanticism.


Franz Brentano grew up in Aschaffenburg and studied in Munich, Würzburg, Berlin and Münster. His dissertation on the concept of " beings " in Aristotle, he presented in Tübingen.

After his habilitation in Würzburg in 1866 Brentano taught there philosophy. In addition to philosophy, he had also studied theology and was ordained a priest in 1864. Prior to the First Vatican Council he was involved at the highest level of church against the canonization of papal infallibility. After the further developments he took the consequences and put 1873 his priesthood down. He also finished his teaching career in Würzburg and was appointed in 1874 as professor of philosophy in Vienna. Since he could not marry because of his priestly ordination, under Austrian law, he was Saxon citizens in Leipzig, to get married. He still had to give up the professorship. In 1879 he resigned from the church. That was in Austria only recently been made ​​possible by law namely v. May 25, 1868. In 1880 he resigned from the professorship. However, he remained until 1895 as a lecturer in Vienna.

On June 27, 1888, his son Johann Michael (Giovanni ) was born (d. 1969). After the death of his wife Ida Love (May 17, 1852-13. March 1894 ) from the Austrian banking family loves Ignatz ( 1809-1877 ), he moved from the Palais Todesco in Vienna, ring road, and moved to Florence in 1895. In 1897 he married his second wife Emilie Rueprecht. From 1903, he gradually lost his eyesight. He earned the Klostertaverne of Schoenbuehel castle in Wachau as a temporary holiday residence. Following the entry of Italy into World War II, he fled in 1915 to Zurich, where he became blind after two eye surgeries and on March 17, 1917 died of appendicitis infection. First buried in Zurich, his bones were exhumed at the request of the family in 1953, cremated and buried his urn in the family vault in the Old City Cemetery in Aschaffenburg ( Lower Franconia ).


Brentano joined the philosophy closely with the psychology that was the basic science par excellence for him. He was the founder of Aktpsychologie that Edmund Husserl, Alexius Meinong, William McDougall, Sigmund Freud and Carl Stumpf influenced among others. They belong to the so-called Brentano school. Especially in Prague his teachings were carried on by the faculty of Charles University and discussed in clubs like the Café Arco and the Louvre Circle by many devotees as Emil Utitz. Like other philosophers stepped eg Felix Weltsch, a close friend of Max Brod and Franz Kafka, Brentano's teachings rather critical of and represented views of Christian honor of rock. Similarly, Meinong returned from later von Brentano, as he took a different view of the psychological concept of " intentionality ". One of his most important students was Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. Strong influence exerted the work of Brentano on the young Martin Heidegger.


  • Aristotle and his philosophy of life. Philosophical Library, Volume 303 Meiner, Hamburg 1977, ISBN 978-3-7873-0401-1.
  • Aristotle and his philosophy of life. Leipzig 1911.
  • Aristotle's theory of the origin of the human mind. Leipzig 1911.
  • The genius. Lecture held in the hall of the Engineers and Architects Association in Vienna. Leipzig 1892 ( Duncker & Humblot ).
  • The bad thing as the object of poetic representation. Paper presented at the Society of Litteraturfreunde to Vienna. Leipzig 1892 ( Duncker & Humblot ).
  • The move away from the non- real. Letters and papers from the estate. Philosophical Library, Volume 314 Meiner, Hamburg 1966, ISBN 978-3-7873-0432-5.
  • The Psychology of Aristotle, especially his doctrine of nous poietikos. Mainz in 1867 ( Franz Kirchheim Verlag ).
  • The four phases of philosophy and her momentary stand Stuttgart 1895.
  • History of Greek philosophy. Edited by Franziska Meyer- Hillebrand. Second, improved edition, Philosophical Library, Volume 313 Meiner, Hamburg 1988, ISBN 978-3-7873-0694-7.
  • History of Modern Philosophy. Edited by Klaus Hedwig. Philosophical Library, Volume 359 Meiner, Hamburg 1987, ISBN 978-3-7873-0678-7.
  • Broad aesthetics. Edited by Franziska Mayer- Hillebrand. 2nd edition, Philosophical Library, Volume 312 Meiner, Hamburg 1988, ISBN 978-3-7873-0738-8.
  • Theory of categories. Edited by Alfred Kastil. Philosophical Library, Volume 203 Meiner, Hamburg 1985, ISBN 978-3-7873-0011-2.
  • My last wishes for Austria. In: Neue Freie Presse, 2./5./8. Dezember 1894.
  • New riddle. (published under the pseudonym Aenigmatias ), Vienna in 1879 (published by Gerold 's Sohn ).
  • Philosophical Investigations on Space, Time and continuum. Edited and introduced by Stephen Roderick M. Chisholm and grains. Philosophical Library, Volume 293 Meiner, Hamburg 1976, ISBN 978-3-7873-0356-4.
  • Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. Leipzig 1874, reprint 1911 ( re-issue at Ontos, ISBN 978-3-938793-41-1 ).
  • About Aristotle. Edited by Rolf George. Philosophical Library, Volume 378 Meiner, Hamburg 1986, ISBN 978-3-7873-0631-2.
  • On the future of philosophy. Vienna 1893 ( Hölder publisher).
  • About the reasons for discouragement in the philosophical areas. A lecture held during the footing philosophical professorship at the Imperial University of Vienna. Vienna 1874 ( Publisher Braumüller ).
  • Studies on the physiology of the senses. Edited by Roderick M. Chisholm and Reinhard Fabian. 2nd edition, Philosophical Library belt 315 Meiner, Hamburg 1979, ISBN 978-3-7873-0444-8.
  • Studies on the sense psychology. Leipzig, 1907.
  • From the existence of God. Edited with introduction and notes. by Alfred Kastil. Philosophical Library, Bd.210. Meiner, Hamburg 1929, reprinted 1968.
  • From the origin of moral knowledge. Leipzig, 1889 ( Duncker & Humblot ).
  • Of the manifold meaning of Being in Aristotle. Freiburg im Breisgau 1862 ( Herder Verlag).
  • What sometimes makes epoch for a philosopher. Vienna, Pest and Leipzig in 1876.
  • Other works published posthumously by Franziska Mayer- Hillebrand.