Franz Theodor Kugler

Franz Theodor Kugler ( born January 18, 1808 in Stettin, † March 18, 1858 in Berlin) was a German historian, art historian and writer.


Franz Kugler was the third child of the merchant, consul and City Council Johann Georg Emanuel Kugler and his wife, the preacher 's daughter Sophie Dorothea Eleonora, nee Sternberg. He grew up in Stettin, where he attended the Marie Stiftsgymnasium. Subsequently, he studied in Berlin. 1830 appeared his sketchbook and it remains so today known folk- song on the Saale bright beach. In 1831 he received his doctorate in art history. In 1833 he married Clara Hitzig, Julius Eduard Hitzig 's daughter.

Kugler in 1835 full professor at the Berlin Academy of Arts. He then pursued a career as an official: It was 1843 art speaker in the Prussian Ministry of Culture.

1840 Kugler wrote his History of Frederick the Great with a detailed, insightful presentation of refraction of the personality of Frederick II by his father, Frederick William I, which is to make its personality understandable. This work was a great success, which also includes book illustrations may have contributed by his then-unknown friend, the painter Adolph Menzel. The book will be launched today.

His manuals on the history of Italian, German and Dutch paintings were translated into English. A British author wrote this, a supplementary volume on the history of the Spanish and French painting.

Since his student days Kugler took an active part in the social life of Berlin. He was a member of the Sing- Akademie zu Berlin, joined the club of " younger artists " at, since 1831 a member of the Architects Association since 1832 and was a member of the scientific Kunstverein. From 1848 on, he belonged to the predominantly literary associations tunnel across the Spree in (his nickname was dortiger Lessing ) and Riitli.

At the height of the glorification of the " German Gothic " in the middle of the 19th century Kugler had the medieval architecture found in the third volume of his History of Architecture (1859 ) for the first time in the context of the development of art as a whole and thereby also revealed the origin of the Gothic in Northern France. This realization sat in Germany rather slowly. After that, however - in the 1880s - began one to prefer the style of the supposedly " pure German " Romanesque against the now " French " Gothic.

Franz Kugler died on 18 March 1858 in Berlin. His grave is located at the old St. Matthew's Cemetery in Berlin -Schöneberg.

The historian Bernard of Kugler and the painter Hans Kugler were sons, his daughter Margaret was married to Paul Heyse.

Works (selection)

Single fonts

  • Sketchbook. - Berlin: Reimer, 1830 ( Online, ULB Dusseldorf )
  • Together with Robert Reinic: Songbook for German artists. 1833rd reprint: Eichendorff -Gesellschaft, Würzburg 1978.
  • Architectural monuments of the Altmark Brandenburg in the picturesque views. L. Sachse & Co., Berlin, 1833.
  • About the older churches of Szczecin. In: Baltic Studies, Volume 2, Issue 1, Szczecin 1833 (online, Google)
  • Handbook of the History of Painting in Italy since Constantine the Great. Berlin 1837, 376 pages (full text). 3rd edition (edited by Hugo von Blomberg ), Berlin 1866, 413 pages (full text). English edition in 2 volumes, London 1841. Volume 1: A Handbook of the History of Painting, from the Age of Constantine the Great to the present time. With Notes by C. L. Eastlake. London 1841, 444 pages (full text).
  • 3rd revised edition, 2 volumes: Volume 2, Stuttgart 1858 ( digitized google books)
  • Part I: Stuttgart 1853 ( digitized University of Utrecht).
  • Part II: Stuttgart 1854 ( digitized University of Utrecht).
  • Part III: Small writings on modern art and their affairs. Stuttgart 1854, 816 pages ( full text )


  • Museum, leaves of Fine Arts (1833-1842)