Frederick, Duke of Bavaria

Frederick the Wise (c. 1339; † December 4, 1393 in České Budějovice ) from the house of Wittelsbach was 1375-1392 Duke of Bavaria and from 1392 until his death, Duke of Bavaria -Landshut.


Friedrich was born in 1339 as the second son of the future Duke Stephen II and his wife Elisabeth of Sicily. In 1360 he married Anne of Neuffen, the year after the daughter Elizabeth was born. Elisabeth married in 1367 after Marco Visconti, son of Mr. Bernabo Visconti of Milan city. My dowry was 45,000 guilders. 1371/72 undertook Friedrich with his older brother Stephen III. Prussia a ride. He was intended by his number of years younger than Uncle Otto V. successor in the Mark Brandenburg, but in 1373 Emperor Charles IV appropriated. The dukes of Bavaria received compensation of 500,000 guilders.

After the death of his father in 1375 Friedrich ruled jointly with Otto V. and his brothers John II and Stephen III. the Duchy of Bavaria. Frederick managed it - first together with Otto, after his death in 1379 alone - the rich Lower Bavaria with its capital in Landshut. As compensation he paid his resident in Upper Bavaria brothers 4000 guilders a year. After the death of his first wife Anna in 1381 he married Maddalena Visconti, a sister of his son Marco. The marriage produced five children, including daughter Elizabeth and son Henry, who succeeded his father as Duke later.

1383 Friedrich fought on the French side in Flanders against the English. He visited the court of his uncle Albert I of Straubing- Holland in Quesnoy and participated in the siege of Bourbourg. On November 1, he kicked at an annual pension of 4000 francs in Paris in the service of King Charles VI. , Whose marriage to his niece Elizabeth, he ran significantly. In the summer of 1385 he accompanied Elisabeth - later called Isabeau de Bavaria - to Amiens to her marriage to the king.

In the war of the cities Friedrich took in 1387 the Salzburg Archbishop Pilgrim caught and called for his release, the termination of his contract with the Swabian league of cities. In the division of the state on November 19, 1392, he managed to keep Lower Bavaria with Landshut, while John II of Bavaria - Munich and Stephen III. Bavaria -Ingolstadt took over. Frederick was a long time advisor of King Wenceslas on legal matters and was regarded as the most promising successor to the ailing king. His sudden death in a service ride prevented, however, that he succeeded his grandfather Ludwig of Bavaria to the throne.


On May 16, 1360 he married Anne of Neuffen, a daughter of Count Berthold VII of Neuffen. The marriage produced a daughter emerged:

  • Elisabeth (1361-1382), married to Marco Visconti, lord of Parma.

When Anna died in 1380, Friedrich married on September 2, 1381 Maddalena Visconti, the daughter of Bernabo Visconti. With her he had five children:

  • Elisabeth (1383-1442), married to Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg;
  • Margaret (* 1384 ), buried in the monastery Raitenhaslach;
  • Heinrich XVI. (1386-1450), Duke of Bavaria -Landshut;
  • Magdalena (1388-1410), married to Johann Meinhard VII of Gorizia -Kirchberg, Count Palatine in Carinthia and Count of Kirchberg in Swabia;
  • Johann (1390-1396) was buried in the monastery Raitenhaslach.