Free newspapers are periodic ( daily or weekly) published, distributed free of charge print media with editorial content. Funding is entirely from advertising revenue. The distribution takes place (eg at public transportation stops at commuter papers ) or to all households in a given area appearance (Regional free weeklies, in Germany called advertising newspapers ) usually either in the public domain. The majority of the free newspapers published in tabloid or small format. However, the contents of free newspapers, the proportion of editorial, independent of the ads and reporting their quality are very different. Generalizations about this type of media often dominate the discussion, but are ultimately not sustainable because they are often refuted with counter-examples.
The market entry of free newspapers felt the respective established buying newspaper publishers have always been a threat. In response, the established publishers in the past tried in vain to achieve a ban on the free competition of legal disputes. Meanwhile, free newspapers started their triumphal march around the world and established the purchase newspaper publishers have entered themselves into the free newspaper business. Today there is hardly a major publishing house that does not even publishes free newspapers or participates in free newspaper publishers.
History of free daily newspapers
As a first free daily newspaper in the world today is the Manly Daily, which first appeared in July 1906 in New South Wales (Australia). It included two pages and had a circulation of 1,000 copies. One can still find (circulation: 91,000 ), now in Murdoch's News Corporation.
The history of free daily newspapers in the United States goes back to the 40s. The publisher Dean Lesher founded in Walnut Creek, the Contra Costa Times newspaper, which remained free until the 60 years inside. The newspaper is now one of MediaNews, the fourth largest newspaper publisher in the United States.
Your triumph in Europe experienced the free daily newspaper with the establishment of metro 1995 in Stockholm. Metro International is now active in Europe in the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Netherlands, Finland, Italy, Poland, Greece, Spain, Denmark, France and Portugal. Spending in Switzerland and the United Kingdom were reinstated. The Schibsted publishing group is engaged with their free newspaper concept for 20 minutes in a few European countries ( Switzerland, France, Spain).
German free newspapers
In Germany numerous regional weekly or Sunday papers appear as free newspapers with very different editorial units and in very varying quality. A controversial and now outdated law ( the procedures were established by the purchase newspaper publishers strained ) from the 1970s and 1980s forbade the free papers, to call themselves " newspaper". Common only in Germany - - generic term " display sheets " Therefore, the created.
The attempt by the Schibsted publishing group in 1999 in Cologne, the free daily newspaper to launch 20 minutes and resulted in the so-called Cologne newspaper battle. The local purchase newspaper publishers DuMont and Axel Springer responded with the publication of competing free papers and broke a protracted legal battle from the fence. Schibsted retired in 2001 with heavy losses on the German market back, the two Cologne competition leaves were also adjusted. Only in 2003 the Federal Court ruled that free newspapers are competition concerns and therefore allows in terms of press freedom. An appeal against this ruling constitutional complaint was not accepted in 2007 by the Federal Constitutional Court and not decided on the issue, since the concrete occasion had done because of the attitude of the products in Cologne. A final decision on the constitutional admissibility is continued. Since the Cologne newspaper fight no free daily paper was brought onto the market in Germany.
Swiss free newspaper
The largest Swiss free newspapers are printed in millions of copies sheets of major distributors: Coop and Migros newspaper magazine. In addition, there have long been many local and regional free gazette.
The free newspaper 20 minutes, was produced in 1999 about the same time with their now vanished from the Swiss market competitor Metropol. 2004, she is the pads and reader- selling daily newspaper in Switzerland and today ( 2007) 1'212'000 certified readers. 20 minutes has local offices and expenditure in Zurich, Berne, Basel, Lucerne and St. Gallen and is owned by the Tamedia.
Between September 2006 and March 2009 was in Switzerland in 1100 kiosks daily from Monday to Friday, the business newspaper CASHdaily on. In March 2009, the newspaper has been set.
In the French-speaking Le Matin Bleu, there are ( 353'000 readers for daily Le Matin ) and 20 minutes ( 276,000 readers ).
On 19 September 2007 for the first time appeared the new free newspaper. Ch Sacha Wigdorovits. The last number there were on Monday 4. May 2009. Since December 5, 2007 she released news, a joint project of Tamedia ( Tages-Anzeiger, Berner Zeitung ) and the Basler Zeitung. The appearance of this paper, however, was already in 2009 set back because they could not withstand the competition of 20 minutes. Since June 2008, in the agglomerations Bern, Basel, Winterthur and Zurich overlooking sold ( as the successor of the set newspaper today ) evening.
The largest regional free newspaper in Switzerland is the Biel -Bienne by Cortopress. Biel -Bienne is every week in all households of the region Biel, Seeland, Bernese Jura, and the town of Grenchen distributed ( 109,000 readers ). Biel -Bienne is bilingual, all articles are written in German and French ( mostly from the same author, so not translated). The Biel -Bienne is therefore an important part of the bilingual Biel's culture. Biel -Bienne was founded in 1978 by Mario Cortesi. In the vernacular, the Biel -Bienne is also called " Cortesi 's view", in reference to the tabloid view.
Austrian free newspapers
As a regional weekly newspapers to free newspapers have long conquered its place in the Austrian media landscape. They appear everywhere, usually in more mutations than freesheet rings and provinces across. Under the umbrella of the Regional Media Austria ( RMA) appear throughout Austria a total of 139 newspapers of the brands bz - district of Vienna newspaper, Bezirksblätter Burgenland, Lower Austria, Salzburg and Tyrol, WEEK Carinthia and Styria, the partner district Rundschau Upper Austria and regional newspapers Vorarlberg, and Grazer, Carinthian regional media, focus Schwaz and Wörgl Kufstein & Rundschau. Default association organizes all Austrian free newspapers in the Regional Media Association of Austria ( VRM).
The era of free daily newspapers in Austria began in Vienna in 2001. As an international group for Vienna a daily complimentary newspaper was planning accused the publisher of the Kronen Zeitung, the most far-reaching Austrian newspaper, even a daily free newspaper on the market, namely the in the Vienna U -Bahn distributed U- Express. In order not to compete with the mother newspaper too much, however, without some public appeal elements (such as the television ). Metro Express has been set against the will of crown - chief Dichand at the request of German co-owner WAZ after a few years in March 2004. A few months later, in September 2004, but a new, free and more extensive newspaper for the subway appeared called today. Owner is the AHVV Verlags GmbH. As Managing Director acts as W. Jansky, the daughter of the late crown bosses Dichand, Eva Dichand. She is also the editor of the paper.
Today is now expanding to Lower Austria, Graz, Linz and Wels. In Graz it has preempted the Styria Media Group ( Kleine Zeitung ). Since May 22, 2006 Styria was out there the free daily newspaper OK. In July 2007, at the same time attracted both today and OK back from Graz.
More Free daily newspapers are published in Upper Austria Upper Austria New from media house Wimmer.
Free newspapers in Luxembourg
In Luxembourg since 10 October 2007, the free newspaper L' essentiel appears in a subsidiary of the publishing Editpress, which publishes the second largest daily newspaper in the country with the Tageblatt. On 27 November 2007, the publishing house Saint -Paul, whose main title D' word is the highest-circulation newspaper responded with the also free titles Point24. Both publications are written only in French, and the content and visual design similar to the popular free newspapers in neighboring France.