The freestyle skiing summarizes five skill disciplines of alpine skiing together. In the disciplines of freestyle skiing the skiers ride over moguls, jumping figures on a ski jump ( aerials ) or in the halfpipe and go at ski cross on a course to the bet. All disciplines are running on alpine skis.
A World Cup in freestyle skiing is regulated by the International Ski Federation since 1980 and organized. Since 1986 the World Championships will take place in freestyle skiing. Parts of the freestyle skiing are also olympic since 1992.
Until the 1990s, freestyle skiing was known in German-speaking countries under the name of trick skiing. The German name has now fallen into disuse.
Freestyle skiing is divided into different disciplines, where a jury will evaluate the performance of athletes with points, and disciplines, in which the winner of a direct comparison in head-to -head race wins. In the point - disciplines of athletes wins with the highest total score.
The point- disciplines Aerials, Moguls, Half Pipe, Big Air and Slopestyle. These disciplines mean:
- Aerials ( dt Jump): On a ski jump with almost pointing vertically upward bounce surface successively from two somersaults, turns and tackles combined art jumps are shown. Each jump here has a set difficulty. The score for a jump is obtained by multiplying the points for the difficulty with the points for execution. The points for both jumps are added.
- Moguls (German moguls ): The athletes go through a manmade moguls. Two jumps are required, since 2003, somersaults are allowed. Points are awarded for the vehicle speed (25%), the driven equipment ( 50%) and for the execution of the recesses ( 25%).
- Half Pipe: In a halfpipe show the athlete jumps, stunts and maneuvers. Points are awarded for the difficulty and execution of all actions. All points of a journey are added.
- Big Air: With a Big Air is a large hill, over the jump, the individual driver and try it to make difficult tricks as possible. Of the Judges ( Judges ) in the categories of style, difficulty level of the tricks and landing is evaluated. An example of such events is the King Of Style Contest.
- Slopestyle: A Slopestyle course can be compared to a skate park. There are jumps and rails ( railings) in different variations. The course is made so that drivers have many ways to combine the individual elements. In a competition is paid to how the driver uses the single elements ( creativity), what tricks he does and how he performs. Slopestyle is driven with bent at both ends skis ( so-called Twintips ).
Former point - disciplines are:
- Acro (German ballet ): When ballet was performed on a smooth, slightly inclined slopes dance-like figures and jumps and evaluated on points.
The disciplines with a direct comparison, dual moguls and ski cross:
- Dual Moguls (Eng. parallel moguls ): Two athletes run through the moguls in the head-to -head race against each other. The qualification is as a single race, the final of the top 16 is then discharged in the dual format. Place 16 to 1, 15 to 2, 14 to 3 ... race with Dual - final meanwhile comprises single World Cup. A separate dual World Cup since 2003, there are no more, only at the world championships can still the old format will be used. (Dual to the beginning, and the winner gets into the next round on )
- Ski Cross: In a knockout system with known heats of four to six athletes enter on a course against each other. The qualification for the knockout system is determined by a qualification or Time Trial. The course includes steep turns, jumps, bumps, and other elements that defy the skill of the driver. The top two finishers will advance to the next round. In a small ( 5-8 ) and a grand final (1-4) to determine the places. All previously excreted are ranked according to qualifying times. 2010, this discipline was first held in Vancouver at the Winter Olympics.
History of freestyle Skiings
The origins of the swift movement on skis dates back to the 1920s. As the creator of the modern freestyle skiing is now also the Norwegian Olympic and world champion in alpine giant slalom in 1952, Stein Eriksen.
In the 1960s, various forms of freestyle skiing under the name " Hotdogging " in the U.S. were better known. In 1966, the first organized competitions in Waterville Valley, New Hampshire were organized. The first professional competition was held in 1971.
Parts of this sport has been documented among others in 1969 in the short film " Happening in White" by Gunter Sachs. As representatives of the sport had the likes of Tom Leroy, Hermann Gollner, Roger Staub and Art Furrer with. The set was supplemented with other winter sports. Musical entertainment provided Peter Thomas. The film was in 1972 awarded the First Prize of the International Olympic Committee and was due to the fact for the first time tried super slow motion a milestone in film history. An even more automotive world and noticeably longer implementation for this division only succeeded again in 1986 with Willy Bogner film Fire and Ice. Here Harold Faltermeyer provided the musical accompaniment.
The FIS recognized freestyle skiing in 1979 as an independent sport, and developed a set of rules concerning the jump techniques. The ultimate goal of these efforts was the banishment of all injury- elements from the sport. The first World Cup tour was staged in 1980 and the first world championships were held in 1986 in Tignes in France.
The rise of freestyle skiing also paid tribute to the Olympic Committee of respect. At the Olympic Winter Games in 1988 by Calgary freestyle skiing has been approved as a demonstration event. Already at the next Games in Albertville in 1992, the discipline was moguls part of the official Olympic program. In 1994 in Lillehammer, the Aerials were olympic.
Originally belonged to the disciplines of aerials, moguls and Acro for by the FIS (DIT ) defined Freestyle skiing. Only later the disciplines Dual Moguls, Halfpipe, Slopestyle and ski cross were added. Acro is now one no longer on the program.