The Friesland district is a district in the north-west of Lower Saxony. He is to be distinguished from the district of North Friesland in the north of Schleswig-Holstein.
In the west it borders the district Witt mouth; he has a coastline in the north the Wadden Sea to the North Sea. To the east lie Jade and Jade Bay, and in between he borders on the district-free city of Wilhelmshaven. In the south of the circle are the counties Weser Marsch, bunting land and Empty. The group area includes the East Frisian island of Wangerooge and the east of this location Minsener Oog.
The district of Friesland lies on the traditional settlement area of the Frisians in East Friesland, the peninsula between the Ems and the Jade Bay ( as the neighboring town of Wilhelmshaven ), but was never politically to East Friesland. After the demise of the rule of the Jever Jeverland was, as already today counted the Frisian Wehde, part of Oldenburg and Oldenburg to the country.
The predominant landscape type is the march ( alluvium ), followed by Geest and bog. Widely used in the landscape are hedgerows in the form of walls, which are covered with trees or shrubs. They are part of the cultural landscape in Friesland and date from the Middle Ages. They served at the time of the demarcation of the land, today they serve as windbreaks and provide ecological small areas dar. Because of the location of the district on the North Sea tourism plays an important role. Special attractions for vacationers in the Wadden sea, the nine kilometer long island Wangerooge.
The coastline of the late 16th century is shown on the 1595 map of the East Frisian incurred historical scholars Ubbo Emmius. Clearly visible are the dips of the Black Sea Bracks between Gödens and Varel and Harlebucht district Witt mouth.
Since the 19th century, the area of present-day district in the two offices Jever and Varel and the official free cities Jever and Varel was divided. In 1933, the new post Friesland formed as part of the Oldenburg administrative reform of the Office and the city of Jever, the town of Varel and the largest part of the Office Varel, from the district of Friesland was on 1 January 1939. In 1946, the county together with the country Oldenburg to the newly founded state of Lower Saxony.
, Which entered into force on 1 August 1977 Lower Saxon Circle reform of Friesland district were dissolved and the communities Bockhorn and Zetel as well as the town of Varel reclassified in the county Ammer country. The town of Jever and the communities sands, Wilhelmshaven, Wanger country Wangeroog were combined with the East Frisian district Witt mouth for new large county of Friesland. County seat was Witt mouth.
Due to various constitutional challenges before the Lower Saxony State Court in Biickeburg the district reform in parts was found to be unconstitutional and the Lower Saxony Parliament suggested a revision of the law for the space bunting country / Friesland.
On January 1, 1980, the reorganization of the space Friesland / Witt mouth was withdrawn, and the counties Ammer, Friesland and Witt mouth were restored in the borders of 1972. County seat is since then the town of Jever; however, remained the former East Frisian municipality Gödens ( county Witt mouth), which was incorporated into the municipality of Sandefjord in 1972, when the district of Friesland.
As of December 2012, a very controversial debate about closer cooperation between the two communities developed at the suggestion of the district administrator of the district of Friesland Sven Ambrosy and the Mayor of Wilhelmshaven Andreas Wagner. Background was, inter alia, the future program of Lower Saxony, the 75 percent of short-term debt of the municipalities involved in the merger takes over at territorial reforms. In the case of Wilhelmshaven- Friesland debt relief assistance for Wilhelmshaven would amount to 35 million euros and 9 million euros for Friesland. To clarify the potential savings ( KGSt ) was commissioned a report commissioned by the independent Municipal Association of Administrative Management, which was to examine the financial impact of a possible merger of the city of Wilhelmshaven and the district of Friesland. The report was published in November 2013, and recommended an encirclement of the city of Wilhelmshaven in the district of Friesland. Wilhelmshaven would have to give up his freedom circle. However, the political leaders could not decide on this solution. Both municipalities rejected in December 2013, the encirclement of their respective boards from.
See also Frisian freedom Rüstringen, Östringen ( Gau ), rule Jever
For the maintenance and promotion of cultural and historical aspects of the old Oldenburg State is Oldenburgische landscape, a registered public body, responsible. This is also a member of the section east of the Inter-Frisian Council for the area of the district. The landscape has its headquarters in the city of Oldenburg.
The district administrator of a county represents the county at the political level and at the same time head of the district administration. Since August 12, 2003 Sven Ambrosy is the full-time district administrator of Friesland. He thus replaced from Karin Evers -Meyer as Landrätin and Lothar Knippert as Chief Administrative Officer. Previously Ambrosy came in July 2000 as Head of the district of Friesland. From 1 July 2001, he was also Deputy Chief Administrative Officer.
Silke Vogelbusch is since 1 January 2012 Ambrosys general representative. She was elected in November 2011 at the inaugural meeting of the District Council of Friesland in Wilhelmshaven first county councilor.
Furthermore, there are three equal honorary deputy county councilors for representative tasks.
The council of the district Friesland belong to 42 elected members and the district administrator. In the last elections to the council came to the following conclusions:
Representative in the country and the Bundestag
In the elections to the parliament of Lower Saxony, the district Friesland forms the parliament constituency 070 Friesland. The direct mandate has been won in January 2013 by Olaf Lies of the SPD. He is Vice Chairman, port spokesman for and was elected in May 2010 as Chairman of the Lower Saxon SPD. The term of office expires in 2018.
In the elections to the German Bundestag, the district Friesland belongs to the Bundestag constituency 027 Friesland Wilhelmshaven. It includes the districts of Friesland and Witt mouth and the city of Wilhelmshaven. Directly elected MPs is Karin Evers - Meyer of the SPD. Your rival candidate Hans -Werner chamber of the CDU missed at the last general election the first re-entry into the Bundestag, but was by the seat of waiver by Martina Krogmann move up to the Bundestag on April 1, 2010, the State of Lower Saxony list of the CDU.
Coat of arms and flag
The circular crest is described as follows: "In a red- blue reinforced golden lion between a silver anchor cross in the right and left upper canton. " It expresses the Summary In 1933 the offices of Jever and Varel and Jever country and the Frisian Wehde from. The lion is a medieval symbol of power of the chiefs of Jever, while the anchor cross was borrowed from the family coat of arms of the Counts of Bentinck, who held sovereign rights in the dominions Varel and Kniphausen until the 19th century. The coat of arms was granted on 26 April 1962. The county flag is horizontally striped blue-red -hook circle coat of arms. Blue and red are the national colors of Oldenburg.
The district of Friesland is the first municipality in Germany, in which an active citizen participation online via the Liquid Friesland project is possible. The software used for Liquid Feedback was released on 9 November 2012.
Cities and Towns
In brackets the number of inhabitants on 31 December 2012.
Archaeological monuments in the district of Friesland
- Castle Canarienhausen at Waddewarden
- Christiansburg in Varel
- Dorfwurt prosecuted ex Lerns
- Ellenser dam
- Fortress Ellenserdamm
- Frederica Vorwerk dike
- Grave mound field Wilhelmshaven
- Jedutenhügel at Red Rooster ( Varel )
- Fortified Church in Jever
- Kirchwurt Sillenstede
- Monastery Oestringfelde
- Motte at alleviating cloister
- Jever Castle
- Fortification of Jever
- Water Castle Gödens
- Wolter Mountain near Jever
Jewish Cemeteries in the district of Friesland
In the district of Friesland there are four Jewish cemeteries in Hohenberge, a district of Varel, in Jever, in Neustadtgödens and in Wilhelmshaven. There are protected cultural monuments - stone witnesses for previously existing Jewish communities and a lively Jewish community life until the 1930s. The cemeteries are usually locate bad, especially since they mainly located on the outskirts of towns.
The Prussian state railway connected with the residence city of Oldenburg ( Oldenburg) since 1867 the important naval port of Wilhelmshaven on sand - Varel.
In Sande joined since 1871 a range of Oldenburg State Railways to the city of Jever, which according to Witt mouth, Esen and eventually continued on Dornum north in 1883.
Add Jever since 1888 branched off from a bank Erlanger & Sons, Frankfurt am Main, built railway to Harle, the starting point of the line ship to the island Wangerooge. There, the Oldenburg State Railway in 1897 took a narrow gauge railway in operation island.
From the trunk line (Oldb ) - Wilhelmshaven took in 1893 another branch lines its output: from Ellenserdamm it went south towards Grabstede and 1905 continue to Westerstede. In Bockhorn crossed the line branching off from Varel, which continued from 1894 to 1896 to Zetel and Neuchâtel; which in turn branched, the branch line Borgstede - Bramloge from. The cross-connection Varel - Roden churches arose in 1913.
In order for a state railway network of 110 km of passenger trains has traveled to the mainland. Over half was shut down after the Second World War:
The entire passenger on the mainland is now in the hands of the North Western Railway GmbH. The German railway has become completely withdrawn with the exception of Wangerooger Island Railway from the circle area.
The district of Friesland lies in the catchment area of the federal motorway A 29 and the federal highways 210, B 436 and B 437