The Fucino (also Fucinosee, Celanosee, Italian Lago Fucino or Lago di Celano, lat Fucinus Lacus ) was up to its complete draining in 1875, the largest lake in central Italy.
He was 4 km south of the town of Avezzano at an altitude of 662 meters above sea level and covered about 155 square kilometers. The round Surrounded by mountains lake had no natural drainage, so that its water level often varied significantly. The surrounding villages were so often affected by floods.
On the shore of the lake was in ancient times Marruvium, the capital of the Italic tribe of the Marsi. The city flourished during the Roman Imperial period; she was surrounded by fertile alluvial soil, resulting in a profitable agricultural economy allowed, as are the fish caught in Fucino in Rome were in great demand. 52 AD Claudius was on the Fucino the largest naumachia ( staging a naval battle ) Align the story. In the middle of the lake he had to build a mechanical Tritons, who announced the beginning of the battle with a fanfare. It fought on both sides depending 19,000 slaves on 50 ships.
Caesar had already plan the draining of the lake in order to avert the risk of flooding and to gain farmland. In addition, the marshy shore of the lake was a breeding ground for malaria-carrying mosquitoes. In the years 44-54 Claudius put this plan into action. 30,000 workers were digging a tunnel under the Monte Salviano through. This channel, however, was blocked after a short time and the water level of the lake rose again. Even Trajan and Hadrian, and Frederick II failed in attempts to leave to drain the lake.
In 1752 appeared after a long dry period on the ruins Marruviums; among other things, Claudius statue was salvaged. As of 1783, the level of the lake rose steadily and threatened the surrounding villages. Only in the 19th century but managed to drain the lake. The work began on July 10, 1854 by order of the Roman bankers Alessandro Torlonia headed by Swiss engineer Franz Mayor de Mont Richer, who had already driven the planning. As De Mont Richer died four years later took over his colleague Enrico Samuele Bermont (* 1823 in Assen, Canton of Vaud, † 1870 in Montpellier) the continuation of the project. 1862 began with the construction of a 6.3 km long and 21 meter wide channel. 1870, the third and final emptying of the lake took place. By 1875 the area was drained and could be used as arable land. Today, the Fucino basin is one of the most fertile agricultural regions of Italy.