Futura is a font and the prototype of a family of " geometric " or " constructed " sans serif linear Antiquas. It was designed in 1927 by Paul Renner and influenced the Bauhaus movement. Compared to earlier sans serif Antiquas the line widths are very uniform and the shape of the letters expressed geometrically, resulting in the almost circular curves is most visible.
The small letters are equipped with substantial and elegant ascenders. They correspond as Futuras uppercase on the principle of the old Roman monumental font. The constructed with ruler and compass types are composed of the basic geometric shapes of the square, the circle and the triangle. The forms, however, are weakened in terms of readability, a common geometry at the Bauhaus - dogmatism was not enforced by Renner after initial attempts in this direction. For example, the inlets of the rounding of the "a" are tapered in the vertical line, also the circular shapes are no geometric circles.
It is worth noting that the "j" consists of only one line and one point, such as " a" and " b" are made up of a circle and a line. Because of the expansive circular shape (see " O" and " E " ) and the upright lowercase suitable font less for the current text, but rather for headings.
Historically interesting is the fact that in the first presentation of this document, the letter " a", " g", " n", " m" and "r" had shapes that look very unusual even today (for example, consisted "n" of a square, but without the base). However, in the first font pattern sheet in 1927 they were only listed as special characters and in the second (1928 ) no longer.
The script was written during Paul Renner's time in Frankfurt and is associated with the project New Frankfurt, Renner had as early as 1925 the city submitted designs for signage, which were implemented.
In the GDR was mainly a similar font, the Super Grotesk used. This was because only the briefs Schriftguß KG / VEB Typoart were on the territory of the GDR initially present, which led to only the Super Grotesk in its program.
The Futura was one of the most popular typefaces of the 20th century, especially in the fifties and sixties. It is still used for the corporate design of Volkswagen and a slight modification from Ikea (from August 2009, however, sparked Verdana Futura at Ikea for the 2010 catalog from ). The University of Leipzig and the Technical University of Freiberg use it as a typeface. Several logos of the parties in the German Bundestag were or are set in Futura.
The director Stanley Kubrick was a fan of this font and use it in most of his films for the film leader as well as for the posters. The plaque that Armstrong and Aldrin 's filings with the first moon landing there is, set in Futura. Wes Anderson used the Futura for his films The Royal Tenenbaums and The Life Aquatic.
In the U.S. series House MD is the font for the lettering Dr House, or House, MD, used.
1941 came the Nazis from the Gothic script (see Antiqua - Fraktur dispute ) and the Futura served, for example, the official catalog of the annual Great German Art Exhibition.
The band Maroon 5 have been used for her third studio album in 2010, this font. However, it was slightly modified: The M was cut in the middle horizontally, so a Roman V is formed ( 5 ). Furthermore, form the "O" s two interlocking rings.
Classification of Scripture
- According to DIN 16518 to categorize the Futura in the group VId ( linear sans serif Antiqua, geometrically constructed )
- Classification according to Beinert: Constructed Grotesk (Geometric )
- Hans Peter Willenberg would classify them in his classification matrix as a " geometric sans serif "