Cod (Gadus morhua )
The cod ( Gadidae ) are a family of bony fish. They belong to the order of the cod -like ( gadiformes ). They include many important food fish. Most species are found in temperate and warm waters of circumpolar in the northern hemisphere of the earth. Most species prefer near the ground and feed on fish and invertebrates. Several species form shoals.
Fish of the cod family are 15 centimeters to two meters long. Largest Gadide is up to 2 m long cod (Gadus morhua ). The body of the cod is spindle-shaped and elongated with one to three dorsal and one or two anal fins. Their pectoral fins are far down on the ventral side. The caudal fin is separated from the dorsal and anal fin. Head and trunk are covered with cycloid scales. The swim bladder has at its front end paired sacs. At the lower jaw sits a chin Bartel.
Way of life
Full-grown cod live almost always benthic (near the sea floor ), on the other hand pelagic juveniles. Many are predatory fish, such as cod, coalfish and pollack. Haddock feed on soil organisms, the polar cod feed on plankton.
Nelson is one of three subfamilies and 16 genera of the cod.
- Subfamily cod in the narrow sense ( Gadinae ) (12 genera, 25 species), three dorsal and two anal fins. The caudal fin is currently completing or slightly emarginate. Normally with chin Bartel. Eggs without oil drops. Tribus Gadiculini Genus Gadiculus Guichenot, 1850 Silver cod ( Gadiculus argenteus ) Guichenot, 1850
- Genus Eleginus Fischer, 1813 Eleginus gracilis ( Tilesius, 1810)
- Eleginus navaga ( Koelreuter, 1770)
- Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) Tilesius, 1810
- Cod (Gadus morhua ) Linnaeus, 1758
- Greenland cod (Gadus OGAC ) Richardson, 1836
- Alaska pollack (Gadus chalcogrammus ) ( Pallas, 1814)
- Haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus ) Gill, 1862
- Whiting ( Merlangius merlangus ) (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Atlantic Tomcod ( Microgadus Tomcod ) Walbaum, 1792
- Pacific Tomcod ( Microgadus proximus ) Girard, 1854
- Pollack ( Pollachius pollachius ) (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Köhler ( Pollachius virens) (Linnaeus, 1758) ( pollock )
- Genus Arctogadus Dryagin, 1932 Arctogadus borisovi Dryagin, 1932
- Greenland cod ( Arctogadus glacialis ) (Peters, 1872)
- Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida ) ( Lepechin, 1774)
- Southern blue whiting ( Micromesistius australis) Norman, 1937
- Blue whiting ( Micromesistius poutassou ) ( Risso, 1827)
- Norway pout ( Trisopterus esmarkii ) ( Nilsson, 1855)
- Pouting ( Trisopterus luscus ) (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Poor cod ( Trisopterus minutus) (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Genus Cusk Oken, 1817 Lumb ( Cusk brosme ) Oken, 1817
- Burbot ( Lota lota )
- Blue ling ( Molva dypterygia ) ( Pennant, 1784)
- Mediterranean - ling ( Molva macrophthalma ) ( Rafinesque, 1810)
- Ling ( Molva molva ) (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Genus Raniceps Oken, 1817 Frog cod ( Raniceps raninus )
The subfamily Lotinae is performed in some classifications (eg FishBase ) as their own family. The Japanese ichthyologist Hiromitsu Endo comes in his phylogeny of the cod -like to the conclusion to give the frog cod family rank. It also puts the two subfamilies of Nelson fork cod ( Phycidae ), the Gaidropsarinae and Phycinae in which the cod family.