Galatia designated in the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine times an inhabited by the Celtic Galatians landscape in Central Anatolia with the centers Gordion and Ancyra (modern-day Ankara). The area was well into the second century AD (also Tolistoagier ) Trocmi and Tectosages divided into the territories of the three major tribes of the Tolistobogier that, Tavium the east and Ancyra each had a main town with Pessinus in the west in the center and in turn were divided into four subgroups.

The Kingdom of Galatia

With the march to Italy and Greece, the Celtic chieftain Brennus ( 4th century BC) came many different Celtic peoples in the Mediterranean, where they dispersed after his death. While some moved back to the north, others merged to form associations and ravaged from 281 BC Northern Greece, Thrace and Macedonia. Parts of this Celtic associations founded in eastern Thrace and the Kingdom Tylis were the rulers of Bithynia Nicomedes I. 278 BC brought against his brother Zipoites to help. After defeating Zipoites the three strains of Tolistoagier, Trocmi and Tectosages pushed further into the interior of Asia Minor, where they, of Antiochus I in the so-called elephant battle ( 268 BC) defeated himself, settled and founded the kingdom of Galatia in which gradually permeated the city's culture. The Galatians by the Seleucids (especially by Antiochus III. ) Settled and the Ptolemies, however, continue to enlist as mercenaries and took over again raids against the coastal towns in the west, from which they extorted money payments. This led to the introduction of a so-called " Galanter's Expensive ", on the other hand the intervention of Rome and Pergamum: To 230 BC succeeded initially Attalus I to defeat the Galatians twice; 184 BC Eumenes II even won supremacy over Galatia ( to 165 BC), after it had already been invaded in 189 BC by the Roman consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso and significantly weakened. At the time of the Mithridatic wars turned Galatia Rome troops against Mithridates VI. available, although it was part of the Pontic sphere of influence since the reign of Mithridates V..

List of kings of Galatia

  • Deiotaros ( 66-40 BC)
  • Kastor ( 40-36 BC)
  • Amyntas ( 36-25 BC)

The Roman province of Galatia

In the year 25 BC, after King Amyntas had fallen in Pisidia, Galatia was bequeathed into Roman possession and was designed by Augustus became an imperial province ( with capital Ancyra ) appointed. Until the reorganization of the Roman provinces of Diocletian (c. 300), the province of Galatia, however, included not only the actual Galatia (ie the residential area of the Galatians ), but also the adjacent areas Paphlagonia, Lycaonia, Cilicia Tracheia and Pisidia ( see figure at right ). In addition, it has been repeatedly associated with Cappadocia (and again separated from it) before they more and more reduced and finally aufteilte in the two areas Galatia Prima and Galatia Secunda from the 2nd century. Both provinces belonged later to Dioecesis pontica and were reunited briefly during the reign of Justinian I, until they were finally incorporated in the late 7th century to the topic of Anatolia.